[Anonymous], "Jesuit Cardinals," The Jesuits: Year Book of the Society of Jesus, 2000, 171-173.
Bottum, J., "One Establishment Meets Another: Avery Dulles's long Journey to the Catholic Cardinalate," The Atlantic Monthly, May 2001.
[Foreign Desk] "New Princes of the Church," The New York Times, January 22, 2001.
Lamalle, Edmond, "Jesuit Cardinals," The Jesuits: Year Book of the Society of Jesus, 1969-1970, 124-129.
Miranda, Salvador, "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church," World Wide Web.
Reese, Thomas J., "Cardinals and Conclaves," America, November 19, 1994.
Note that the years to the left form the chronology of list of the year when each Jesuit was raised to the cardinalte.
<> Though not a bishop, Dulles, as a cardinal, is entitled to a crozier, a coat of arms, a miter, a pectoral cross, and a ring. His motto on his coat of arms is "Scio enim cui credidi" (2 Tim. 1:12), and he is Cardinal Deacon of the Church of Gesu' e Maria in Rome.
+Many Jesuit alumni like those from Rome's Gregorian University (see America, March 5, 2001, p. 19, for and advertisement with names of at least fifteen, on February 21, 2001) have been created cardinals over the past 450 years, including one third to one half of the
# 1 Roberto de'Nobili (1541-1559) was created cardinal in 1553 and was prohibited by the pope from entering the Jesuit Order. However, under the direction of the Jesuit General,
he lived the rule of the Society of Jesus
# 2 Charles de Lorraine (1592-1631), begged Pope Gregory XV, who wished to raise the Jesuit (from a royal family and Prince Bishop of Verdun) to the cardinalte, that he not do so.
#3 Jan Kazimierz (1609-1672), created in 1647, resigned the cardinalate before being conferred the red hat. He was a Polish king
and a Lithuanian grand duke.
# 4 Luigi di Canossa (1809-1900), a former Jesuit (1837-1847) who joined the Diocese of Verona and was elevated in 1877.
# 5 Paul Emile Leger (1904-1991), elevated in 1953, was a Jesuit novice for a short time (September 7, 1925 to November 6, 1925).
# 6 Richard J. Cushing (1895-1970), Archbishop of Boston, was twice scheduled to enter the Society of Jesus but chose the secular clergy. After he was informed on the night of November 16, 1958 (that day, he was made a Founder of the New England Province) that he was to be created a cardinal, he atrributed this to the influence of the Jesuits.
# 7 Ignatius Kung Pin-mei (1901-2000) was educated by the Jesuits and worked closely with them. His public reception as a cardinal in 1991 was held at the Jesuit headquarters in Rome and he was buried in the Santa Clara Cemetery at the Jesuit university in California.^
# 8 Hans Urs von Balthasar (1905-1988), though he died before his elevation, he was a Jesuit from 1929 to 1950 and some believe that he was received back into the Jesuit Order before his death. Interviewed by Zenit (December 11, 2003), Cardinal Marc Ouellet of Quebec pointed out that, in addition to himself, the following cardinals were students of von Balthasar: Philippe Barbarin of Lyon, Peter Erdo of Esztergom-Budapest, Joseph Ratzinger of the Curia, Christoph Sconborn of Vienna, and James Francis Stafford of the Curia.
^Created in pectore before it was later made public.
*Taught at Jesuit Theologate, Woodstock, Maryland.
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Vincent A. Lapomarda