The Minster and the Parish
Churches of York contain the largest deposit of extant stained glass in
England. Despite evidence of much loss, the city reflects most closely
what must have been common throughout city and country in late medieval
England. To understand the context of the English medieval church, we
must acknowledge the post-medieval forces that have so altered the face
of the past. Campaigns against images of greater and lesser magnitude
began when Henry VIII separated England from the traditions of Roman Catholic
piety (see iconoclasm). York was subject to anti-image regulations. However,
during the Civil War of the following century, York was fortunate. When
it was taken by Puritan troops under Sir Thomas Fairfax in July 1644,
the Minster and parish churches were protected from destruction.
ST. WILLIAM'S SHRINE
York Cathedral, St. William Window (N7) 1414, Beatrice de Ros (d. 1415) mother of William, sixth Baron Ros and most probably the donor of the window.
York Cathedral, St. William Window (N7) 1414, St. William Shrine and petitioner holding a wax model of the afflicted part of the body (here the leg) and offering it at the shrine. The practice of offering "ex votos" in the form of the object of petition was practiced as far back as Roman times in England, for example at Bath.
York Cathedral, St. William Window (N7) 1414, the procession transferring St. William's relics from nave to choir in 1284. Notable personages, including other bishops (two are shown here carrying the shrine), King Edward I and Queen Eleanor attended.
Cherubim. St. Michael Spurriergate, York, c. 1410. © Raguin/MMK. Cherubim are completely covered with wings, and contemplate the face of God.
Nine Choirs (Orders) of Angels, stained glass, All Saints North Street, c. 1410. © Raguin/MMK.
Orders of Angels, All Saints North Street, York, c. 1410. Principalities: These Angels are thought to be those who protect religions as well as nations and leaders of the world. They are described as wearing soldier's uniforms. © Raguin/MMK.
St. Anne teaching the Virgin to read, chancel window, All Saints North Street, detail c. 1412-28. © Raguin/MMK.
St. Catherine, chapterhouse vestibule, York Minster c. 1290 © Raguin/MMK.
St. Catherine, window of chapterhouse, York Minster c. 1285-90 © Raguin/MMK
St. Catherine, window of chapterhouse, York Minster c. 1285-90, detail of torture with wheels © Raguin/MMK
St. Catherine, westernmost window of north nave aisle, York Minster, 1307-1312, detail of torture with wheels © Raguin/MMK Royal arms are in the border of this window and figures wearing the fleur-de-lis of France and the lions of England flank the saint's torture. The window is unusual for its imagery of the royalty and peerage of Europe. Italics inicates heraldic shield.
In the borders are figures in heraldic dress: the Kings and Queens of England and France; four earls; Lancaster, Gloucester, Surrey and Warwick, and four barons: Rose, Mowbray, Clifford, and Percy.
St. Christopher, All Saints North Street, York, 1412-28 © Raguin/MMK.
JOHN THE BAPTIST
St. John the Baptist, (chancel window) All Saints North Street, York, 1412-28 © Raguin/MMK.
JOHN THE EVANGELIST
St. Lawrence martyred, north nave aisle #4, York Minster, c. 1305-30 © Raguin/MMK
Lay donor offering window, north aisle #4, York minister, 1305-30 © Raguin/MMK
Christ appears to Mary Magdalene, All Saints Pavement, York, west window, originally St. Savior Church, York, c. 1370. © Raguin/MMK
Donor Richard Skelton, stained glass, St. Denys Walmgate, York, below St. Margaret and Virgin and Child, c. 1350 © Raguin/MMK
Donor Richard Skelton, detail, St. Denys Walmgate, York, c. 1350 © Raguin/MMK
Penancers window, detail of man receiving penance from a cleric, north nave aisle, nXXVII, York Minster, c. 1305-30 © Raguin/MMK
LATER WINDOWS AT YORK
WILLIAM OF YORK
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