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Bristol Ely Canterbury
York/ York Minster Lincoln Norwich


Rogan, John.  Bristol Cathedral: History and Architecture.  Stroud; Charleston, SC: Tempus, 2000.

Gomme, Andor. Bristol; An Architectural History.  London, Lund Humphries, 1979.  Physical Details: 452 p. : 337 illustrations; plans, elevations; diagrams; maps; bibliography; index. Summary: A historical survey of the architecture of Bristol, based principally on surviving buildings but including discussion of numerous important works that have been destroyed. The first five chapters deal with the medieval city, concentrating especially on the cathedral and S. Mary Redcliffe; the next group covers the period from the Renaissance to the mid 18th c. and gives special attention to King's Weston House and the Exchange; the final section describes the great growth of the city from the first terrace-building period in the mid 18th c. until 1939. The principal appendix contains biographical notes on the principal Bristol architects with lists of their more important known works. (A. H. Gomme, RILA, UK).

Rehl, Beatrice C.  The Fourteenth Century Choir of Bristol Cathedral. PhD diss, New York University, 1984 (Diss. Abs. Intern. No.: DA8411435).  Physical Details: 694 p. Summary: Analyzes the building phases of the early 14th c. choir. Argues that the superstructure and all internal features, such as the tombs, piers, aisle bridges, and church furniture, were completed in a single campaign that lasted from 1298 to about 1315. During a second campaign, begun in the 1320s, the aisle vaults were installed, while the main vault was not in place until the late 1340s. Glazing procedures, which may have been restricted to the eastern Lady Chapel, were not completed until the 1370s.

Bettey, J. H.  The Medieval Churches of Bristol: Anniversary Address, 1989. Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society 1990, v. 34, p. 1-27, ISSN 0951-001X.  Physical Details: 16 ill., maps, plans. Summary: Historical background, growth and architectural development of churches and other religious institutions, and the extent of late-Medieval documentation for churches and their furnishings, ca.12th-15th cs.

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British Archaeological Association.  Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral.  London: British Archaeological Association, 1979.

Zarnecki, George.  The Early sculpture of Ely Cathedral.  London, A. Tiranti. 1958.
Physical Details: 52 p., 101 plates. illus., plan. 25cm.

Lindley, Phillip.  “The Fourteenth-century Architectural Programme at Ely Cathedral.”   England in the fourteenth century: proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton symposium. ed. W. M Ormrod.  Woodbridge, Boydell Press, 1986; Dover, NH, Boydell Press, 1986.   p. 119-128. Physical Details: 22 illustrations; plans, elevations; diagrams.Summary: Discusses the chronology and authorship of the Octagon, Choir, Prior Crauden's Chapel and the Lady Chapel of Ely cathedral. Concludes the first three were certainly, and the last probably, the work of the same master mason--one ""Master John the Mason'' whose name frequently appears in the Sacrist Rolls.Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art. References: RILA, 15 1043 (1989)

McAleer, John Philip.  “Some Observations about the Romanesque choir of Ely Cathedral England.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians v. 53 (Mar. 1994) p. 80-94. Abstract: Due to the collapse of the Romanesque central tower in 1322, the original eleventh-century choir of Ely Cathedral has been almost totally rebuilt. However, a few fragments remain to suggest something about its original form. The responds marking the entrance to the vanished apse are the major and most conspicuous survivors. Somewhat similar shafts at the west end of the choir, adjacent to the piers of the fourteenth-century Octagon, have recently been interpreted as evidence that the choir elevation possessed vertical articulation. A close examination of these western shafts reveals that they are actually fourteenth-century, not eleventh-century, masonry. The choir, therefore, most likely was, like the early south transept arm, not vertically articulated. It may also not have had alternating supports, unlike the transept. Other traces of the choir remain at gallery and clerestory levels. One of the most interesting fragments is located in the north clerestory, behind the respond of the lost apse. Here is found evidence of a newel stair in a position similar to one of a pair at nearby Peterborough Abbey, where they are associated with an apse, as was likely the case at Ely. These features, as well as the lack of a crypt, may further distance the choir of Ely from its supposed model, Winchester Cathedral, begun in 1079. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

Holton-Krayenbuhl, Anne.  “The Prior's Lodgings at Ely.” The Archaeological Journal 156 (1999): 294-341. Abstract: The prior's lodgings at Ely expanded between the twelfth and the fourteenth centuries resulting in a set of apartments with self- contained first-floor circulation, some of which served the prior's distinguished guests. The buildings have been re-examined in conjunction with the recent restoration carried out on part of this complex. The individual buildings and the complex are considered at specific stages of development, and they are also set against relevant comparative data. The documentary evidence is reviewed, shedding light on early grants of land from the bishop, and the function of the buildings and social life in the prior's department are also discussed. This paper provides a reappraisal of earlier studies that tended to present a static view of the medieval monastery at Ely, using mainly post-Dissolution documents as retrospective evidence for their medieval form and function. Reprinted by permission of the Royal Archaeological Institute

Woodman, Francis " The Vault of the Ely Lady Chapel: Fourteenth or Fifteenth Century", Gesta 23/2 (1984): 137-44. The early 14th century Lady chapel at Ely has long been regarded as a crucial building in the development of the English Decorated Style.  Citing considerable evidence or reworking, Woodman suggests that in the original phase completed in 1349, the building was not vaulted.  He argues that the closest parallel to the Ely vault in both structure and style is provided by the nave and choir vaults of Norwich Cathedral, 1463-1499.  He suggests the same date for Ely.

Keen, Laurence.  “The Fourteenth-Century Tile Pavements in Prior Crauden’s Chapel And in the South Transept.”  Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral 47-57. London, 1979. Physical Details: 1 illustration; diagrams. Series: British Archaeological Association, Conference Transactions, 2. Summary: On the tile pavement (1324-1325) in Prior Crauden's Chapel, Ely Cathedral, which includes a panel with the fall of Adam and Eve, lions passant, stags, birds, and geometric designs; and the worn pavement in the transept of the Cathedral, with square and rectangular tiles and a large wheel. (Staff).

Roberts, Marion. “The Effigy of Bishop Hugh de Northwold in Ely Cathedral.”  Burlington Magazine 130, n.1019 (Feb 1988): 77-84. Physical Details: 16 ill., plans. Summary: Ornately carved mid-13th c. Purbeck marble effigy. Discusses spiritual and temporal imagery, and speculates about the slab's original location in the cathedral. Notes: Source of data: BHA, Bibliography of the history of art. References: BHA, 1 5308 (1991)

Coldstream, Nicola.  “Lady Chapel at Ely: its place in the English Decorated style.”  East Anglian and Other Studies Presented to Barbara Dodwell 1-30.  Reading: Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies, Reading University, 1985. Physical Details: 14 illustrations. Series: Reading medieval studies, 11.  Summary: On the architecture and sculptural decoration of the 13th-14th c. chapel in Holy Trinity, Ely. (RILA, GBR). Notes: In: East Anglian and other studies presented to Barbara Dodwell, 1-30. Editor(s)/Compiler(s): Barber, Malcolm; Mcnulty, Patricia; Noble, Peter. Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art. References: RILA, 15 961 (1989)

Coldstream, Nicola.  “English Decorated Shrine Bases.”  Journal of the British Archaeological Association CXXIX (1976) 15-34. Physical Details: 7 illustrations; 3 text figures. Summary: The majority of surviving shrine bases in England were renewed between 1270-1350. Ely is earlier, Durham later. Existing bases are at Whitechurch Canonicorum, Westminster, Oxford, Hereford, S. Albans, Stanton Harcourt, Chester. Several fragmentary bases survive. In the late 13th c. a box-type replaced the earlier slab on columns, with Ely a possible intermediate type. In style survivors resemble Westminster work, and being early provincial examples of the Court style, must have been important disseminators of an essential aspect of the later Decorated style. Henry III and Edward I seem to have been fundamental to this development. The building of the shrine at Westminster, in opposition to Canterbury, their attendance at translations all over the country, pilgrimages, stimulated other places to renew their shrines. There is evidence that some cults--e.g., Walsingham and Bromholm--flourished or faded according to the royal interest shown. (Author, RILA, UK).

Draper, Peter.  “Bishop Northwold and the Cult of Saint Etheldreda.”  Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral 8-27.  London, 1979. Physical Details: 4 illustrations; plans, elevations. Series: British Archaeological Association, conference transactions, 2. Summary: Looks at the architectural design and purpose of Bishop Hugh Northwold's presbytery (completed 1252) at Ely Cathedral, and considers the original liturgical layout. Suggests the extension was to accommodate the shrine of S. Etheldreda and discusses this in the wider context of the renewed promotion of indigenous saints in the late 12th and 13th cs. and their significance as a direct stimulus to architectural enterprise. (Staff, RILA, UK).  Editor(s)/Compiler(s): Coldstream, Nicola.

Binski, Paul.  “A Duccioesque Episode at Ely: the Mural Decorations of Prior Crauden’s Chapel.”  England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium 28-41. Woodbridge, Boydell Press, 1986; Dover, NH, Boydell Press, 1986.

Physical Details: 11 illustrations. Summary: Examines the decorative scheme of the chapel in the precinct to the south of Ely cathedral. Dates the fragmentary Annunciation on the west wall to ca.1330, making it the earliest example yet found of the impact of Italian Trecento art on English wall painting.

Bony, Jean.  English Decorated Style; Gothic Architecture Transformed, 1250-1350. Oxford, Phaidon; Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1979. Physical Details: 315 p. Series: The Wrightsman Lecture, 10. Summary: The Decorated Style is presented as the specifically English response to the international diffusion of the French Rayonnant Style, based essentially on the use of the large traceried window. Adopted first at Westminster within the Court Style of Henry III, Rayonnant forms soon spread to regional centers such as Lincoln, Chester, York and Exeter, giving rise to new lines of experimentation. But the leading force remained the London Court style of Edward I, in which a taste for exoticism was marked in the 1290s by the adoption of the ogee arch, which led to the elaboration of the curvilinear vocabulary. Two chapters define the character of the new style, its handling of space, its dominant themes and motifs (interaction of the plastic and linear; niche work; patterning in vaults, windows and on wall surfaces), with reference to many buildings, including the outstanding examples of the choirs of Bristol and Wells, Tewkesbury, the north porch of S. Mary Redcliffe at Bristol, Ely Lady Chapel and Octagon. A final chapter deals with the swing to Perpendicular in England and the wide influence of the Decorated Style on the continent, touching first the Baltic and Mediterranean countries, then acting on the genesis of German Late Gothic and French Flamboyant. (Author, RILA, UK).

King, Dennis.  “The Restoration of the Lady Chapel Stained Glass.”  Medieval art and architecture at Ely Cathedral 98.  London, 1979. Series: British Archaeological Association, Conference Transactions, 2. Notes: In: Medieval art and architecture at Ely Cathedral, 98. Editor(s)/Compiler(s): Coldstream, Nicola. Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art. References: RILA, 9 980 (1983)

Lindley, Phillip.  “The imagery of the Octagon at Ely.”  British Archaeological Association Journal 139 (1986): 75-99. Physical Details: 12 illustrations; plans, elevations. Summary: Reconstructs the 14th c. decorative program for the crossing tower, executed in wall paintings, stained glass and sculpture. Analyzes iconography and suggests Alan of Walsingham was the program's author. (RILA, GBR).

Coldstream, Nicola.  “Ely Cathedral; the Fourteenth-Century Work.” Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral 98  London, 1979. Physical Details: illustrations; plans, elevations.  Series: British Archaeological Association, Conference Transactions, 2. Summary: Discusses the building program at Ely in the second quarter of the 14th c.: octagon, choir bays, Lady chapel, and Prior Crauden's chapel. Demonstrates that the Lady chapel masons were a separate group, probably from Lincolnshire, while East Anglian style predominates in the other areas. (Staff). Notes: In: Medieval art and architecture at Ely Cathedral, 28-46. Editor(s)/Compiler(s): Coldstream, Nicola.

Fletcher, John.  “Medieval Timberwork at Ely.” Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral 58-70. London, 1979. Physical Details: illustrations; diagrams. Series: British Archaeological Association, Conference Transactions, 2. Summary: Discusses the scissor-braced trusses of the nave roof (second quarter, 13th c.) and the octagonal lantern and its supporting frame (14th c.) of Ely Cathedral, and the timberwork of monastic and other related domestic buildings at Ely. (Staff).

Owen, Dorothy Mary.  The Library and Muniments of Ely Cathedral.  Ely, Dean and Chapter of Ely, 1973. Physical Details:  18 p. illus., facsims. 22 cm. Series Ely Cathedral. Monographs

Owen, Dorothy Mary.  The Medieval Development of the Town of Ely.  Ely: Ely Society, 1993. Physical Details: 28 p.: ill., maps ; 21 cm.

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Caviness, Madeline Harrison. The windows of Christ Church Cathedral Canterbury.  London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1981. Physical Details: 352[235] p. : 947 illustrations, 18 color; plans, elevations; diagrams; bibliography; index. Series: Corpus vitrearum Medii Aevi.  Great Britain, 2. Summary: Complete catalogue of the extant stained glass of Canterbury cathedral that dates before 1600, including glass in collections. Introductory sections discuss the history and documentation of the building, the dating of the windows, their iconography, style and technique. Each panel is fully described and illustrated, with a chart showing the restored pieces. The glass of the late 12th c. building comprises the famous typological series, completely reconstructed with a new edition and translation of the inscriptions recorded in three medieval manuscripts (Cambridge, Corpus Christi MS 400; Canterbury, MS C246, and Oxford, Christ Church MS 256), also the extended genealogy of Christ from the clerestory, and the miracles of Thomas Becket in the Trinity Chapel. Among the later glass, the so-called Royal Window of the Martyrdom transept is redated by heraldry to the mid-1480s and is viewed as a memorial to Edward IV and his line, rather than his gift. The extraordinary quality of the west window, perhaps a gift of Richard II, is seen for the first time in photographs taken from scaffolding. (Author, RILA, UK).

Draper, Peter.  “Interpretations of the Rebuilding of Canterbury Cathedral, 1174-1186: Archaeological and Historical Evidence.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 56 (June '97): 184-203.  Abstract: The sources of evidence available for the late twelfth-century work at Canterbury Cathedral offer an exceptional opportunity to discuss the complex building history of a major church in relation to the historical circumstances surrounding its reconstruction. The publication here of new measured drawings which correlate accurately for the first time the crypt with the upper church at the junction between the presbytery and the Trinity Chapel, establishes a more secure basis for the interpretation of the complex archaeological evidence of the building sequence after the fire of 1174. The evidence provided by these drawings allows a reassessment of the contributions of the two architects, William of Sens and William the Englishman. A critical review of the published interpretations of both the archaeological and the historical evidence is then undertaken, particularly relating to the arguments advanced in two major articles recently published on the cathedral, which are shown to be misleading in significant respects. The influence of the cult of Thomas à Becket and the possible roles of the leading clergy are carefully reconsidered and a new interpretation offered which suggests a decisive role for Prior Alan of Tewkesbury in the formulation of the final design of the Trinity Chapel. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

Collinson, Patrick, et. al. eds. History of Canterbury Cathedral. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1995. Physical Details: xxii, 602 p., [75] p. of pl. : 179 ill. (6 col.), plans; bibliogr. ref., index. Summary: Seven chronological chapters provide a history of the Cathedral from 597 onwards. Further thematic essays discuss the Cathedral School, the Archives and Library, the liturgy and music. Two chapters address the medieval and the post-Reformation monuments within the Cathedral (by Christopher Wilson and Katharine Eustace respectively). Notes: Source of data: BHA, Bibliography of the history of art. References: BHA, 5 18073 (1995) Other Authors: Ramsay, Nigel, ed. Sparks, Margaret, ed., Wilson, Christopher, Eustace, Katherine.

Hearn, Milliard Fillmore.  “Canterbury Cathedral and the cult of Becket.”  The Art Bulletin 76 (Mar. 1994): 19-52.  Abstract: Numerous design modifications in the Early Gothic eastern arm of Canterbury Cathedral, 1175-84, have long been noted but never interpreted in light of the newly emergent cult of Saint Thomas Becket. This study analyzes the modifications, reconstitutes three designs prior to the one actually constructed, and investigates the historical circumstances surrounding each phase of the construction project. The result uncovers a previously unsuspected history of discord over the cult, which necessitated in turn four strikingly different accommodations for Becket's remains: retention in the crypt, a martyrium rotunda, a retro-choir, and a grandiose chapel with axial relic tower. Reprinted by permission of the College Art Association, Inc.

Harvey, John Hooper.  “Archbishop Simon of Sudburry and the Patronage of Architecture in the Middle Ages.”  Canterbury Cathedral Chronicle 76 (Apr 1982): 22-32. Summary: A brief account of Simon Thebaud of Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1375 until his murder in 1381, as benefactor and patron of architecture in Canterbury and the Cathedral. Notes the work of Henry Yevele, chief master mason to the Crown from 1360-1400, particularly in the nave of the Cathedral. Also discusses patronage of art and architecture by other bishops and archbishops in the Middle Ages. (Staff, RILA, UK).

Humphery-Smith, Cecil R.  “Heraldry of the Chapel of Our Lady Undercroft.” Canterbury Cathedral Chronicle 81 (May 1987): 45-48. Summary: Fifteenth century heraldry at Canterbury cathedral. (RILA, GBR).

Humphery-Smith, Cecil R.  “An Armorial of Pilgrims and Benefactors.”  Coat of Arms 1997, v.12, no.178, summer, 66-69. Physical Details: 13 col. ill. Summary: Discusses the numerous coats of arms that decorate the vault of the Great Cloister of Canterbury Cathedral, and suggests that the display be viewed as a medieval armorial of patrons and visitors to the cathedral. The arms were likely applied to the vault's ribbing in the early 15th c.

Gaddes, Jane.  “Some Tomb Railings in Canterbury Cathedral.”  Collectanea historica: essays in memory of Stuart Rigold  Maidstone: Kent Archaeological Society, 1981.

Physical Details: 8 illustrations; plans, elevations. Summary: Argues that four sets of iron railings, for the tombs of Edward the Black Prince (d.1376), Archbishop William Courtenay (d.1396), Henry IV (d.1413) and his wife Joan of Navarre (d.1436) and Archbishop Henry Chichele (d.1443), were all commissioned in connection with the construction of Chichele's tomb in 1425.

Caviness, Madeline Harrison.  “A Lost Cycle of Canterbury Paintings of 1220.”  Antiquaries Journal 54 (1974): 66-74.  Physical Details: 15 illustrations. Summary: Publishes mid-19th c. drawings and sketches by George Austin senior, and George Austin junior in Canterbury Cathedral Library, of paintings then on the vaults of Trinity Chapel. Discusses the style and iconography of the paintings (dated 1220) and makes comparisons with a Canterbury Psalter (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Département des manuscrits, MS lat.770) and sculptures at Wells. Appendix describes sketches. (Courtauld Institute). Notes: Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art.

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Böker, Hans J. “York Minster's Nave: The Cologne Connection.”  Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians v. 50 (June '91): 167-80.

French, Thomas W.  York Minster: The Great East Window, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.  Description: xii, 161 p., 24 p. of plates : p., ill. (some col.), 31 cm.

Brown, Sarah.  Stained Glass at York MinsterLondon: Scala in association with the Dean and Chapter of York, 1999. Comprehensive and authoritative guide.  Includes glass up to the present.

City of York; The Central Area.  London, HMSO, 1981. Physical Details: 282,[200] p. : 1107 illustrations, 31 color; 157 text figures; plans, elevations; maps; index. Summary: A survey of the central area of the City of York (GB) including 15 churches and important buildings. A special feature of this area is the large number of timber-framed houses dating from the 14th to 17th cs. There are descriptions of over 500 buildings erected before 1850, and a preface discusses carved Saxon stones, friaries, church fittings, mediaeval hospitals, guild halls, mediaeval stone houses, building materials, and architects 1700-1850. (Staff, RILA, UK).

Dobson, Barrie.  “Medicant Ideal and Practice in Late Medieval York.”  Archaeological Papers From York Presented To M.W. Barley York: York Archaeological Trust, 1984, 109-122. Physical Details: 7 illustrations; plans, elevations. Summary: Historical survey, including a consideration of archaeological evidence, of the role of the Franciscan, Dominican, Carmelite and Augustinian friaries in York. Notes: In: Archaeological papers from York presented to M.W. Barley, 109-122. Editor(s)/Compiler(s): Addyman, P. V.; Black, V. E. Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art.

Coldstream, Nicola.  “York Minster and the Decorated Style in Yorkshire; Architectural Reaction to York in the First Half of the Fourteenth Century.”  Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 52 (1980) 89-110. Physical Details: 10 illustrations. Summary: The new styles of nave and west front of York Minster had only a limited influence on new buildings in Yorkshire between ca.1290 and ca.1350. They adopted superficial details but remained fundamentally under the influence of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincoln cathedral itself. Among the buildings discussed are Guisborough priory church; S. Peter, Howden; Beverly Minster; Selby Abbey church; and S. Patrick, Patrington. (Author, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal).

Brooke, Christopher N. L., David Abulafia, Michael J. Franklin, and Miri Rubin.  Church and City, 1000-1500: Essays in Honour of Christopher Brooke.  Cambridge, England; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1992. TOC: Christopher Brooke at Cambridge, Liverpool and London / Marjorie Chibnall, Robert Markus and Rosalind Hill -- Religious culture in town and country : reflections on a great divide / Miri Rubin -- Theology and the commercial revolution : Guibert of Nogent, St Anselm and the Jews of northern France / Anna Sapir Abulafia -- City and politics before the coming of the Politics : some illustrations / David Luscombe -- Nuns and goldsmiths : the foundation and early benefactors of St Radegund's priory at Cambridge / Elisabeth Van Houts -- A tale of two cities : capitular Burgos and mendicant Burgos in the thirteenth century / Peter Linehan -- From privilege to persecution : crown, church and synagogue in the city of Majorca, 1229-1343 / David Abulafia.The church of Magdeburg : its trade and its town in the tenth and early eleventh centuries / Henry Mayr-Harting -- The abbot and townsmen of Cluny in the twelfth century / Giles Constable -- The cathedral as parish church : the case of southern England / Michael Franklin -- 'Except the Lord keep the city' : towns in the papal states at the turn of the twelfth century / Brenda Bolton -- The medieval chapter of Armagh Cathedral / J.A. Watt -- The murals in the nave of St Albans Abbey / Paul Binski -- The annals of Bermondsey, Southwark and Merton / Martin Brett -- Citizens and chantries in late medieval York / Barrie Dobson.

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Broughton, Lynne.  Interpreting Lincoln Cathedral: The Medieval Imagery.  Lincoln, England: Lincoln Cathedral Publications, 1996.

 Medieval Art and Architecture at Lincoln Cathedral.  London: British Archaeological Association; Leeds: Obtained from W.S. Maney; Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1986.

Binski, Paul.  “The Angel Choir at Lincoln and the Poetics of the Gothic Smile. Lincoln Cathedral, England.” Art History v. 20 (Sept. '97) p. 350-74. Abstract: The writer explores how the mismatch between the fundamental letter of Christianity, whose central signs seem so mournful, and the Gothic smile are to be negotiated. He focuses on the Angel Choir at Lincoln Cathedral, England, completed, with its throng of smiling images, in 1280. In so doing, he extends what he regards as important observations made by the historian Caroline Bynum on the role of the body--and hence bodily expressivity--within Gothic religious art into the critique of medieval representation. His discussion is positioned within the growing debate on the importance of the bodily or somatic character of late-medieval religious imagery.

Owen, Dorothy, ed.  History of Lincoln Minster.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Physical Details: xviii, 334 p., [16] p. of pl. : 31 ill., 1 diagram, 2 maps, 4 plans; sel. bibliogr., index. Summary: Specially commissioned studies on the cathedral foundation of Lincoln which trace its historical development, architectural evolution, and musical history from its post-Norman foundation to the present day. Notes: Source of data: BHA, Bibliography of the history of art. References: BHA, 4 12640 (1994)

TOC: Introduction : the English church in eastern England, 1066-1100 / Dorothy Owen -- Architectural history / Peter Kidson -- Music and worship to 1640 / Roger Bowers -- Music and worship, 1660-1980 / Nicholas Thistlethwaite -- Historical survey, 1091-1450 / Dorothy Owen -- Historical survey, 1450-1750 / Margaret Bowker -- Historical survey, 1750-1949 / David M. Thompson.

Roberts, M. E.  “The Relic of the Holy Blood and the Iconography of the Thirteenth-Century North Transept Portal of Westminster Abbey." England in the Thirteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1984 Harlaxton Symposium.  Woodbridge (GBR), Boydell Press, 1986; Dover, NH, Boydell Press, 1986, 129-142.  Physical Details: 8 illustrations. Summary: Discusses iconographic sources for the unusual gesture of Christ pointing with His left hand to the wound in His side in the Last Judgment tympanum (1260s) of the south porch at Lincoln Cathedral. Argues that the initial use of this image in England was in the central portal of the north transept of Westminster Abbey [London], and associates it with the relic of the Holy Blood presented to the Abbey by Henry III in 1247. Notes: In: England in the thirteenth century: proceedings of the 1984 Harlaxton symposium, 129-142. Editor(s)/Compiler(s): Ormrod, W. M.

Morgan, Nigel J.  The Medieval Painted Glass of Lincoln Cathedral.  Oxford, Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press, 1983. Physical Details: xvii,60[12] p. : 51 illustrations, 15 color; 5 text figures; bibliography; index. Series: Corpus vitrearum Medii Aevi, Great Britain.  Occasional paper, 3. Summary: 13th-15th cs. (Staff, RILA, GBR).

Zarnecki, George. Romanesque Lincoln : The Sculpture of the Cathedral. Lincoln : Honywood, 1988. 108 p.; ill.

Zarnecki, George.  Cathedrals and Monastic Buildings in the British Isles.  Part 1; Lincoln, Romanesque West Front.  London, H. Miller, for the Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London  1976. Physical Details: 92 p. : 158 illustrations; plans, elevations. Series: Courtauld Institute illustration archives, 1. Summary: Detailed photographic coverage of Lincoln Cathedral. A full discussion on the cathedral (archaeology, sculptural decoration and iconography of the frieze) is separately published in the companion text, Lincoln Cathedral. (Staff, RILA, UK). Notes: General ed.: Peter Lasko.

Kidson, Peter.  Cathedral and Monastic Buildings in the British Isles.  Part 3; Lincoln, S. Hugh’s Choir and Transepts.  Peter Lasko, ed.  London: H. Miller, in association with Courtauld Institute of Art, 1977. Series: Courtauld Institute illustration archives, 1. Summary: Photographic coverage of the Gothic part of Lincoln Cathedral, first laid out in 1192 and inspired by Canterbury. The earliest surviving parts of the Gothic building are found in the eastern transepts, and the choir between the eastern and western transepts known as S. Hugh's choir. (Staff, RILA, UK).

Broughton, Lynne.  Interpreting Lincoln Cathedral: The Medieval Imagery.  Lincoln: Lincoln Cathedral Publications, 1996. Physical Details: 106 p. : 106 ill., 1 plan; bibliogr. Summary: An interpretation mainly of the sculpture, including the bosses in Exchequer Gate, and stained glass.

Stocker, D. A.  “The Tomb and Shrine of Bishop Grosseteste in Lincoln Cathedral.”  England in the Thirteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1984 Harlaxton Symposium.  Woodbridge (GBR): Boydell Press, 1986; Dover, NH, Boydell Press, 1986, 143-48.

Physical Details: 8 illustrations; plans, elevations.  Summary: Demonstrates that two fragments of chest-lid and two spandrel fragments carved with half-figures of angels carrying scrolls are part of the demolished tomb of Robert Grosseteste (d.1253). Reconstructs the monument as a large rectangular table-tomb, constructed largely of Purbeck marble, with a brass on the lid. Suggests that the design was influenced by the shrine of S. Edward the Confessor, erected 1241-1269, in Westminster Abbey [London].

Fernie, Eric C.  “Alexander’s Frieze on Lincoln Minster.”   Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 12 (1977) 19-28. Physical Details: 11 illustrations; diagrams; maps. Summary: Gives an explanation of the strange placement of Noah and Daniel scenes at Lincoln (GB), and examines dates of the fire (12th c.) which precipitated Bishop Alexander's repairs. The claim that the frieze was moved to Lincoln from another location, is refuted. (Staff, RILA, UK). Notes: Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art. References: RILA, 4 4660 (1978)

Coulson, Charles.  “Hierarchism in Conventual Crenellation: An Essay in the Sociology and Metaphysics of Medieval Fortification.”  Medieval Archaeology. 26 (1982) 69-100. 

Physical Details: 2 illustrations. Summary: Discusses the symbolic and functional purposes of crenellation for ecclesiastical precincts and the buildings within religious enclosures (13th-16th cs.). Among the examples discussed are the cathedral closes at Lincoln, Wells and Lichfield and the Bishop's Palace at Wells. (Staff).

McNeil, John.  “The Chronology of the Choir of Southwell Minster.”  Southwell and Nottinghamshire: Medieval Art, Architecture, and Industry.  London: British Archaeological Association, 1998, 24-32, pl. XI-XV. Physical Details: 14 ill.  Summary: Analysis of the new choir built in the 13th c. reveals that it was built in two phases; the first from east to west, the second from west to east, any minor problems of alignment being resolved in the fourth bay. Discusses how this new space may have been used liturgically, and goes on to consider the choir's architectural affiliations. Concludes that the choir was begun in, or shortly before, 1233, by a group of masons from Lincoln Cathedral, and dates the second phase of work to between ca.1240 and ca.1248.

Jansen, Virginia.  “Superposed Wall Passages and the Triforium Elevation of St. Werburg’s, Chester.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians38/3 (Oct 1979) 223-243. Physical Details: 28 illustrations; plans, elevations; maps. Summary: Investigation of the Gothic elevation at St. Werburg's, Chester (ca.1278), which uses a tall clerestory and low triforium, proportions new to England but soon copied at Guisborough Priory after 1289, at Exeter Cathedral during the 1290s, and via Exeter in several Breton churches. Following a variant English tradition using superposed wall passages in clerestory and triforium (e.g., the Trinity Chapel of Canterbury Cathedral), but probably motivated by Burgundian Gothic design transmitted through Savoyard masons working on Edwardian castles in north Wales, the Chester designer created an elevation that fit English construction yet challenged the common Early English pattern seen in the choirs of Canterbury, Lincoln, and Westminster Abbey. Reflecting post-Westminster changes in English architecture, the new elevation helped engender development of the Decorated Style. (Author).

Zukowsky, John.  The Polygonal Chapter House’ Architecture and Society In Gothic Britain. PhD diss, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1977. Summary: Discusses the visual prominence of the centrally planned polygonal chapter house. Usually square or rectangular in design, only in England did a new plan appear, a circle, in the chapter house of Worcester Cathedral from ca.1120. But from the year 1200 through the 1400s the polygonal not the circular is repeated in 31 examples. Specifically, it is after the chapter house of Westminster Abbey from 1246-55 that octagonal chapter houses appeared at least 14 times throughout England and Scotland. On the basis of a ca.1250 description of Lincoln's decagonal chapter house of ca.1235-ca.1250, visual correspondences between some chapter houses and some Medieval descriptions and illustrations of the Temple, English and Scottish royal patronage of octagon chapter houses, and the concept of Solomon as an ideal of kingship, argues that the chapter house orignated from Medieval misconceptions about the Temple of Solomon. Available in typescript; microfilm; xerox. Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art. References: RILA, 5 4843 (1979)

Baily, John.  “St. Hugh’s Church at Lincoln.”  Architectural history 1991, v.34, 1-35.

Physical Details: 25 ill., diagrams, plans. Summary: Author is concerned with the work of the first master mason at Lincoln cathedral ca.1192-1209. Reviews the literature since 1883. Studies the construction, offering a geometrical analysis to explain such innovative eccentricities as the tripartite vaults, triangular apse and illusionistic arcading. Presents a reconstructed view of the church as it would have appeared ca.1210.

Stocker, David A.  “The Remains of the Franciscan Friary in Lincoln: A Reassessment.”  Archaeological papers from York presented to M.W. Barley.  York, York Archaeological Trust, 1984, 137-144. Physical Details: 4 illustrations; plans, elevations. Summary: Analyzes the fabric of the one surviving building of the Greyfriars priory in Lincoln, which now houses the City and County Museum. Argues that the building, constructed in two phases in the 13th c., was not the friary church, but rather the conventual infirmary.

St. Mary’s Guildhall:

Stocker, David.  St. Mary’s Guildhall, Lincoln: The Survey and Excavation of a Medieval Building Complex.  S.l: Council for British Archaeology for City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit, 1991. Physical Details: 96 p. : 68 ill., 1 map, plans; bibliogr. Series: Archaeology of Lincoln; XXI-1. Summary: A major domestic complex, indicating the highest social status, was built in the medieval city known as Wigford in 1150-1170. From 1251 until 1547 it was a socio-religious guild. In the early 17th c. it became a school, and from at least the 18th c., a sequence of maltings is recorded. Discusses the archaeological and documentary setting of the site, and reports on important finds, including stained glass (14th and 15th cs.), ceramics, and architectural fragments.

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Atherton, Ian, ed.  Norwich Cathedral: Church, City, and Diocese, 1096-1996.  London: Rio Grande: Hambledon, 1996. Physical Details: xvi, 784 p., [8] p. of pl. : 247 ill. (15 col.), plans; bibliogr. ref., index. Summary: Thirty-five essays discuss all aspects of the church's institutional and artistic history since its foundation by Herbert de Losinga in 1096. Contributions include coverage of the Romanesque and Gothic fabric and sculpture and their influence, medieval painting, stained glass, decorative ironwork, conventual seals, aspects of heraldry and patronage, the monuments, the bells, an account of the post-medieval fabric, and restorations and repairs after 1945.

Shinners, John R. “The Veneration of Saints at Norwich Cathedral in the Fourteenth Century.” Norfolk archaeology. 1998, v.40, no.2., 133-44.  Notes: Summary in English. Résumé en Anglais. Source of data: BHA, Bibliography of the history of art.

Rose, Martial.  Stories in Stone: The Medieval Roof Carvings of Norwich Cathedral.  London: Herbert, 1997. Physical Details: 144 p. : ill. (some col.); bibliogr., index. Summary: Reproduces a selection of roof bosses from Norwich cathedral dating from between 1300 to 1515, with an introduction and full descriptions.

Fernie, Eric.  An Architectural History of Norwich Cathedral.  Oxford: Clarendon, 1993.

Physical Details: xvi, 228 p. : 119 ill., maps, plans; sel. bibliogr., index. Series: Clarendon studies in the history of art.  Summary: A history of the building of the cathedral, in particular of the original Norman structure of the 11th and 12th cs. Analyses the documents, archaeology of the fabric, and social and architectural context. Appendix details the architectural patronage of Herbert de Losinga.

Borg, Alan, Jill Franklin, Veronica Sekules, David Thomson, and Tony Sims.  Medieval Sculpture from Norwich Cathedral. Norwich, GBR: University of East Anglia, Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, Mar-Apr 1980. Physical Details: 49 p. : 50 illustrations; plans, elevations; bibliography; 57 works shown. Summary: Catalogue entries for the 12th-16th c. sculpture are introduced by historical commentaries. (Staff, RILA, UK).

Woodforde, Christopher. The Norwich School of Glass-Painting in the Fifteenth Century, London: Oxford University Press, 1950. Early study of important glass painting still of great value.

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