2 unspecabyl, unspeakable.

4 deyneth, deigns; nobeley, nobleness.

7 hynderawnce, hinderance; be, by.

9 sumdeel, somewhat.

10 charytefully, charitably; whech, which.

12 penawns, penance.

13 lech, like; reedspyr, reed stalk.

16 worshep, honor.

17 repref, reproof; this creatur, i.e., Margery.

18 gon wyl, become wayward; parfythly, perfectly; steryd, stirred.

20 trad, trod.

21 in party the levyng, in part the life.

23 be, by.

24 werdly, worldly.

26 leyd on syde, put aside; worshepd, honored; sythen, then.

27 kynred, kindred.

34 cheden, chided; indued, endued.

36 dysese, anxiety; lofe, love.

41 trost, trust.

42 prevy, private.

44 awondyr, amazed.

45 wysten, knew; homly, familiar.

49 gostly, spiritual.

52 ankrys, anchorites; hem, them.

53 mende, mind.

56 mevynggys, movings; steringgys, stirrings; trustly, with faith, trustingly.

63 er than sche ded any wryten, before she committed any to writing.

65 levyngs, manner of living.

66 myth, might.

67 credens, credence.

68 Dewchlond, Germany.

73 comownd, talked the matter over.

74 evel wretyn, badly written.

74-75 cowd lytyl skyll theron, hardly understand it.

76 leved, believed.

77 behyte, promised.

80 behestyd, promised.

85-86 schuld cun best rede the booke, should best be able to read the book.

88 bewreyn, betray, speak ill of, divulge.

91 evel sett, badly set.

92 behestyd, promised.

93 a do, have done.

100 mend, memory.

104 eyn myssyd, eyes failed.

106 creatur, i.e., Margery.

107 lett, hinder.

108 levyn, leave off.

110 lyth, light; qwayr, quire.

111 proym, preface.

114 sythen, afterwards; schamis, shames; reprevys, reproofs.

116 han mend, had memory.

118 clef, cleaved; or, before.

121 bodyn, bidden.

124 obloquie, abuse, calumny.

127 asayd, tried.

129 Mary Maudelyn, Mary Magdalene. July 22 is the day of Mary Magdalene.

130 sumdele, somewhat.

131 worschepful, honorable; kynde, nature.

132 accessys, attacks of illness.

134 dyspered, despaired; wenyng, thinking.

136 lettyd, hindered.

137 heele, health.

138 inow, enough.

139 penawns, penance.

140 dedys, deeds; saf, except.

141 seke, sick; mende, mind.

142 schrevyn, shriven; defawt, lack, sin.

143 iseyd, was said.

145 conselyd, concealed.

146 undyrnemyn, reprove.

148 to, toward, i.e., toward-side.

150 sey, saw.

151 her, their; lowys, flames.

152 rampyng, ramping, adopting a threatening stance; thretyng, threatening.

153 halyng, haling.

154 thretyngys, threats; bodyn, bade.

155 denyin, deny.

157 dede, did.

158 schrewyd, mean-tempered.

160 a fordon hirself, have committed suicide; steryngys, anxieties. See note.

161 bot, bit.

162 roof, rent, tore.

163 agen, against; spetowsly, grievously.

164 a don saf, have done except.

166 wend, thought; a skapyd ne levyd, have escaped nor relinquished.

169 aperyd, appeared.

175 levyn, lightning; stey, rose; eyr, air; esly, easily.

177 stabelyd, settled.

179 botery, buttery.

181 wende, thought.

184 meny, servants.

186 Whan men wenyn . . . fro hem, When men think he is far from them.

187 fel, befell.

188 drawt, spiritual ecstasy.

191 befortym, before that time.

192 wyst, knew.

193 gold pypys on hir hevyd, gold pipes as part of a fashionable headdress.

194 hodys, hoods; typettys, tippets; daggyd, ornamented with points and incisions.

195 staryng, conspicuous.

197 levyn, leave off.

198 kenred, kindred; hym semyd nevyr forto a weddyd hir, i.e., he did not seem like the sort of person to have married her.

199 town N, see note, line 462; hey Gylde of the Trinyté, the Guild of the Trinity was the most powerful of the town of Lynn's parish fraternities.

200 savyn the worschyp, preserve the honor.

201 arayd, arrayed.

205 brewyn, brew (ale).

206 ure, experience.

207 prevyn, be successful.

208 fayr standyng undyr berm, fair standing under the barm, the yeast formed on brewing liquors.

211 punched, punished; war, wary; eftsons, again.

216 huswyfré, household occupation; horsmille, horse mill; tweyn, two.

219 craske, fat, lusty; lykand, in good condition.

221 drawe no drawt, draw no load.

223 don this hors drawyn, make or cause this horse to draw.

231 noysed, noised, rumored.

233 venjawns, vegeance; seyd on, said one (thing).

235 clepyd, summoned; kallyd, called.

236 wretthyd, wretched.

246 habunawnt, abundant.

247 syhyngys, sighings.

248 spytys, scorns.

249 drawt, ecstasy.

252 governawnce, manner of life.

256 to komown fleschly, to have intercourse.

256-57 dette of matrimony, debt of matrimony (a conventional way of speaking of marital relations).

257 levar, rather.

258 wose, ooze;comownyng, intercourse.

263 wyst, knew.

265-66 be her bothins wylle and consentyng of hem bothyn, by both their wills and (by) mutual consent.

272 schrevyn, shriven.

273 conselyd and curyd, concealed and covered.

277-78 an hayr of . . . dryen on malt, a haircloth from a kiln such as men used for drying of malt.

278 kyrtylle, woman's gown; prevylich, secretly.

283 japyd, joked.

286 dyspite, contempt;ches, chose.

291 compunccyon, remorse, penitence; boystows, violent.

292 bethowt, bethought.

296 contwnyng, continuing; wepyn and levyn whan sche wold, weep and leave off whenever she wanted to

297-98 wept for the world for socowr and for wordly good, wept for the world in order to gain comfort and worldly goods.

302 dure, endure.

306-07 the crucifix, i.e., the figure on the cross, or Christ.

307 halsyn, embrace.

311 for no drede, for doubtless.

312 sergyth, searches.

313 freel , frail;sufferawns, sufferance; snar, snare.

314 skape, escape.

315 wend, thought.

317 hayr, hairshirt.

319 levar, rather.

322-23 Seynt Margaretys Evyn, St. Margaret, whose feast day was July 20, was the virgin martyr tortured and killed for her espousal of Christian chastity by Olybrius, ruler of Antioch. When at home, Margery worshipped in the church of St. Margaret's in Lynn, one of the town's main churches. It was attached to a priory of Benedictines.

325 chese, choose.

326 preve, prove (to).

329 labowrd, labored, afflicted.

330 Pater Noster, Our Father, the Lord's Prayer.

332 levyd, believed; suasyons, persuasions.

334 do, done.

335 symulacyon, simulation.

339 leful, lawful, permissable.

340 was labowrd, was afflicted.

341 inoportunyté, inopportunity.

343 wetyn, know.

344 levar, rather; hewyn, hewn.

350-52 Sche thowt . . . was so fals unto hym, She thought she was deserving of no mercy, for her consenting was so willfully done, not worthy of doing him (i.e., God) service, for she was so false unto him.

352 schrevyn, shriven.

354 rewelys, rules.

356 durst, dared.

357 lettherye, lechery.

359 party, part.

363 wer so wondyrful . . . far wyth hem, were so wonderful (astonishing) that she could hardly deal (fare) with them.

373-74 that have . . . schreve therof, who has brought your sins to your memory and made you to be shriven thereof.

374 contrysyon, contrition.

375 clepe, call.

376 hayr, hair (cloth).

378 derworthy, precious; that, what.

380-81 sacrament of the awter, Eucharist.

383 knawyn, gnawed.

383-84 raton knawyth the stokfysch, rat gnaws the stockfish.

385 inow, enough; be, by.

386 wel, well-being, good fortune; wo, woe.

388 mow, might.

389 leve, leave off; byddyng of many bedys, bidding of many beads (saying of many prayers).

391 be thowt, by thought.

392 hey, high.

393 ankyr, anchorite; Frer Prechowrys, Dominican Priory at Lynn; prevyteys, secrets.

397 ye sowkyn . . . Crysts brest, you suck even on Christ's breast (The nutritive or "female" attributes of Christ were conventional figures in late medieval devotional literature. See Bynum [1987], pp. 270-76.).

398 ernest peny of hevyn, earnest penny (pledge-penny) of heaven.

402 geve hir, devoted herself; bodyn, bidden.

406 sche saw Seynt Anne gret wyth chylde, she saw Saint Anne great with child, i.e., pregnant with the Virgin. For the importance of extra-Biblical fictions relating to the private lives of Saint Anne and the Virgin in late medieval spirituality, see Ashley and Sheingorn.

408 besyde, busied.

409 kerchys, kerchiefs.

418-19 potel of pyment and spycys, two quart vessel of sweetened and spiced wine.

421 wonyd, dwelled.

422 toke hym up fro the erthe, took him up from the earth (where he lay after birth).

424 compassyf, compassionate.

427 dever, duty.

428 Bedlem, Bethlehem; purchasyd hir herborwe, purchased her lodging.

429 beggyd owyr Lady, begged for our Lady.

431 lyg, lie.

434-35 I schal not byndyn yow soor, I shall not bind you (swaddle you) tightly.

442 ob, of (see note).

443 purveyng hir herborw, purveying her lodging.

445 duryng, enduring.

446 sesyng, ceasing

449-50 for sche was so long dyfferryd therfro, for she was so long deferred therefrom.

451 languren, languish.

456 chastyse us her how thow wylt, chastise us here however you will.

461 felaw, fellow, companion.

463 qwyte, requite.

466-67 executor, executor (of her spiritual estate).

469 halfyndel, half.

470 halvendel, half.

471 mede, reward.

473 even cristen, fellow Christians; dubbyl, double.

476 er Whitsonday, before Whitsunday, the Feast of Pentecost; sle, kill.

477 Estern woke, Easter week.

478 knowlach, knowledge;was wone befor, was accustomed to before;gan neygh hir, came near her.

479 wyse, way.

480 Whytson Evyn, Whitsunday Eve. Whitsunday is the Feast of Pentecost.

482 astoyned, bewildered; voys, voice.

483 venjawns, vengeance.

485 party, part; vowte, vault.

485-86 the fote of the sparre, the foot of the rafter.

486 weyd, weighed.

487-88 sche ferd as . . . a lytyl whyle, for a little while she fared (acted) as though she had been dead.

489 whech hygth, who was called; wondyr cas, wonderful case.

490 gretly dysesyd, greatly distressed.

491 hol, whole; cher, demeanor.

494 levyn, believe.

495-96 Maystyr Aleyn, the Carmelite friar, Alan of Lynn.

498 way, weighted; treys, tree's.

503 venjawns, vengeance.

504 quemfulnes, favor.

506 gostly, spiritual; mygth not, might not.

515 voys, voice; levyng, living.

516 behestyst, promise.

520 bere, beer; cake, cake, loaf.

521 her, there.

522 smyte of, smite off; les than, unless; comown kendly, lit., common naturally, i.e., have intercourse with. See note.

524 medele, meddle, have intercourse with.

525 why meve ye this mater, why do you bring up this matter.

526 For I wyl wete, For I will know.

527 levar, rather.

536 mede, meed, reward; hayr, haircloth; haburgon, jacket of mail (next to your skin).

537 wele, wills.

537-39 "Nay," he seyd . . . not so.", "Nay," he said, "that will I not grant you, for now I may use you without mortal sin and then I might not." (By taking a vow of wedded chastity, John and Margery would sacramentally eliminate the physical element of their marriage.)

541-42 to Brydlyngtonward, toward Bridlington; fornseyd, aforesaid.

544 clepyng, calling.

547 dettys, debts.

549 leve, live.

550 leve, leave.

551 goodlych, well.

557 contraryen, go against; mekyl, great; les, unless.

562 opteyn, obtain.

568 qwyte, requite, pay back.

574 sythen, afterward.

577 ankrys, anchorites; reclusys, recluses.

579 dyvers, different.

580 wetyn, know; dysseyt, deceit.

583 monkys, monks.

584 save, except; bar gret offyce, had great office (duties); set hir at nowt, disparaged her.

585 at mete, at the midday meal; of, during.

588 dalyawns, daliance; gan gretly enclyne to hirward, began greatly to incline toward her.

589 savour, savour, delight.

592 levyn, believe.

597-98 in letthery . . . kepyng, in lechery, in despair, and in the keeping (hoarding) of worldly goods. (These are the three classic vices of lust, pride -- of which despair is a type -- and avarice.)

599 lesyng, lie.

600 leesyngys, lies.

603 schreve, shriven; wythowtynforth, without, outside.

610 Sorwyth, Sorrow (be sorry).

617 suppriowr, sub-prior.

623 as, as if.

624 aloon, alone; cheys hir as sche cowde, lit., choose her as she could, i.e., make her own way.

625 eld, old; an eld monk, whech had ben tresowrer wyth the Qwen, probably John Kynton, chancellor of Queen Joanna, wife of Henry V.

626 dred, feared by.

628 heryn, praise.

630 meynteyn, maintain.

637 in party, as part; that he schuld o yer hyer men, that he should for one year hire men.

640 lawhyng, laughing.

642 lawhyst thu, do you laugh; brothel, wretch.

649 brent, burnt.

650 lollare, Lollard, a follower of the beliefs of John Wyclif, the late fourteenth-century theologian, whose ideas were judged heretical. These included renunciation of the cult of images and saints, of the doctrine of transubstantiation, and of the church's involvement with temporal goods or offices. For the relevance of Wycliffite thought to the Book, see Staley (1994); tonne, tun, large barrel.

653 tremelyng and whakyng, trembling and quaking; erdly, earthly.

657 tweyn, two; eretyke, heretic.

658 loller, Lollard.

659 in, inn.

660 Dewchmannys, German man's.

661 ostel, hostel.

667 eyne, eyes; lestyn, last, survive.

671 peler, pillar.

673 ne were . . . grace, were not my grace alone.

675 chedyn and fletyn, chided and scolded.

676 comownyng in, talking about.

680 for dred of inpacyens, for fear of (her) lack of endurance.

681 stokke, piece of timber; ex, ax; lofe, love.

682-83 that thow woldyst for my lofe, what you would do for my love.

685 deryn, harm.

687 wroth, angry.

688 cun no skyl of the, will be able to have no knowledge of you.

692 funston, baptismal font.

695 hyd, hidden.

697 it arn, these are.

701 sekerest, most certain; les, unless.

705 mete, meal.

707 buxom, gentle; far, fare.

710 hete, heat.

711-12 at thi lyst, at your wish.

714-15 `He that doth . . . unto me', Mark 3:35.

725 er than, before.

726 Seynt Jamys, the shrine of St. James at Compostella in Spain.

727 good, i.e., money.

731 deyn, die.

732-33 I wyl that thu were clothys of whyte, I will that you wear clothes of white (a sign of virginity).

733 arayd, arrayed.

735 wondryn, wonder.

739 veyn dred, vain dread.

743 proferyd, proferred.

746 commensowr in dyvinyté, doctor of divinity.

747 steryng, stirring, guidance.

748 ferd, fared.

752 thretyd, threatened.

754 dysese, trouble; boystows, unmannerly.

759 Bysshop of Lynkoln . . . Philyp, Philip Repingdon, Bishop of Lincoln from 1405 to 1419, when he resigned his see.

761 abedyn, abided.

762 wetyn, know.

766 lymyt, limited, set.

767 hy, devout.

768 qwyk, quick, alive.

769 hir lysted, she liked.

771 sadly,soberly, wisely.

774-75 the mantyl . . . in whygth, the ceremony by which Margery would officially be granted the clothing of married chastity.

775 in erth, on earth.

784 us, us, we, These are the only times Kempe uses first person pronouns in the Book.

786 er, before; mete, the midday meal; powyr, poor.

787 lovys, loaves.

790 meny, household; hyr eyled,ailed her.

791 swyers, squires.

792 gentylly, graciously; mees, mess.

795 pregnawntly, pregnantly, significantly, insightfully.

800 abyden, abide, wait; prevyd, proved, tested.

804 sey the Bysshop, tell the Bishop.

810 Archbusshop of Cawntyrbery, Arundel, Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1397, 1399-1414.

812 dyocyse, diocese. As an East Anglian, Margery is technically under the rule of the Bishop of Norwich; Lincoln is north of King's Lynn; feyned, fained, pretended.

816 schelyngys, shillings.

817 clothyg, clothing.

818 Lambhyth, Lambeth, in London, the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

820 rekles, reckless; swyers, squires; yemen, yeomen.

821 othis, oaths.

822 undyrname, rebuked; dampnyd, damned; sweryng, swearing.

823 pylche, pilch, an outer garment of skin trimmed with the fur.

824 forschod, reviled; bannyd, banned.

825 Smythfeld, Smithfield, in London where the first two Lollards were burnt, William Sawtre in 1401 and John Badby in 1410.

826 levyst, livest.

829 auctoryté, authority; chesyng, choosing.

830 howselyd, houseled, be given the Eucharist. This is more frequent than was ordinary in the late Middle Ages when most people received the Sacrament once a year.

831 provynce, province

836 defawte, lack.

839 aprevyd, approved.

841 meny, household.

842 alderes Lord, Lord of us all; gon, given.

843 tretowrys, traitors; hem, those.

844 les than, unless.

845 benyngly, benignly.

852 Lenne, Lynn, Margery's town.

853 Frer Prechowrys, Dominican priory.

856 owt, out.

857 ther is behyte, there is promised.

858 frenschepys, friendships wyth condycyon, upon condition.

861 reme, realm.

866 Norwych, Norwich, some twenty miles southeast of Lynn.

868 vykary of Seynt Stefenys, Richard Caister, vicar of St. Stephens in Norwich.

870 prevytés, secrets.

880 revelyd, revealed.

882 aport, deportment, bearing.

883 evyn cristen, fellow Christians.

887 hedows, hideous.

892 er, or.

893 qwyk, quick, alive.

895 veryly, truly.

896 Secunde Persone in Trinyté, i.e., Jesus.

899 Hyltons boke, Walter Hilton's Scale of Perfection; Bridis boke, Liber Revelationum Celestium S. Birgitte; Stimulus Amorys, a fourteenth-century mystical text falsely attributed to St. Bonaventure; Incendium Amoris, a fourteenth-century mystical work by the English hermit Richard Rolle.

902 mend, mind.

903 Seynt Kateryn, St. Katherine of Alexandria, legendary fourth-century virgin martyr.

910 grutchyng, grudging, complaining.

915 trustly, trustfully.

916 enspyr, inspire.

919 howsyld, houseled, administered the Eucharist to.

920 moneschyd, admonished; artyculys, articles.

923 malys, malice.

925 hens, hence.

927 Whyte Frer. . .Wyllyam Sowthfeld, Carmelite friar (d. 1414) known for his devotion; whech hyte, who was named.

928 levar, living person.

933 gremercy, gramercy (an exclamation).

933-34 dredyth ye not, dread ye not.

935 heyly, highly.

944 fawt, fault; soget, subject.

954 bodyn, bidden.

955 ankres . . . Dame Jelyan, Julian of Norwich, anchorite mystic and author of the Revelations of Divine Love.

966 contraryows, contrarious, at cross purposes.

967 levars, living people.

969 dubbyl, double.

970 dowtyng, doubting.

972 lyche, likely.

975 owyth to levyn, should (or ought) to believe.

976 mornynggys, mournings.

978 nowmeryd, numbered.

979 turmentyn, torment.

983 feryth, fear.

989 abyte, habit, clothing.

991 perseverawnt, perseverant.

995 owtforth, outwardly.

996 dom, judgment.

997 her, their.

1000 sekyr, true, spiritually safe.

1002 asayn, assay, try.

1004-05 Than is my bodily . . . wher to have, Then is my bodily comfort gone, and spiritual comfort from any confessor such as you I will not know where to find.

1006 hoose, whose.

1012-13 tryfelys and japys, trifles and jokes.

1013 fawyn, fain.

1016 homly, homely, familiar.

1022 norych, nurse.

1025 levyn, leave.

1027 levyn, believe.

1036 eftsonys, again.

1038 departyd, parted; war, aware.

1040 departyn, separate.

1043 encresyd, increased.

1046 eraend, errand.

1054 talys, tales.

1061 Thow, Though.

1062 sekyr, certain.

1064 owyn, ought.

1065 wete, learn.

1067 les than he had bettyr frendys in erthe, unless he had better friends on earth.

1069 esse, ease.

1070 hede, heed.

1079 schok and flekeryd, shook and flickered.

1080 dowe, dove.

1081 chalys, chalice.

1082 sacre, consecration of the sacrament.

1083 sacreys, consecrations.

1085 Bryde, St. Bridget of Sweden (ca. 1303-73), whose reknown in England was particularly high, owing to the influence of the Brigittine Order; say, saw.

1086 wyse, manner; betokenyth, means.

1087 venjawnce, vengeance.

1088 erdene, earthquake.

1097 derworthy, honored.

1098 pepyl, people.

1100 pyté, pity.

1101 deyn, die.

1103 pestylens, pestilence; bataylys, battles; famynyng, famine.

1113 frwte, fruit.

1114 longyth, belongs; holy maydens, i.e., to virgins.

1116 besynes, business.

1118 wedlake, wedlock.

1119 let me to, hinder me from.

1129 Mary Mawdelyn, Mary Magdalene.

1129-30 Mary Eypcyan, Mary the Egyptian.

1130 Seynt Powyl, Saint Paul.

1136 forberyn, forego.

1139 schuld a brostyn, should have burst; Aswythe, quickly.

1141 sekyr, sure, certain.

1142 hily, highly.

1143 maystres, mistress; wyse, manner.

1146 he cowde most skyl in, he was most learned in.


An early sixteenth-century reader/editor has gone through the manuscript emending it in red ink. In the notes I have dealt with these markings as if they came from Margery's first editor, noting some of those emendations particularly those that typify that reader's reconstruction of her text. Sometimes, as in lines 146 and 206, this effort simply modernizes Margery's idiom. Elsewhere the concern seems to be with streamlining the syntax (i.e., lines 714, 2035). In some instances the emendations seem necessary (e.g., lines 11 and 103), and I have adopted them for my text. We have no way of knowing whether the red hand has any authority for the alterations other than his/her own reading of the text. For a systematic annotation of the red hand see the notes to Meech's edition. In the MS, chapter numbers are written in the outer margins at the beginning of each chapter. Each chapter begins with a rubric capital.

Primus liber

11 oure. MS: added above Savyour in red.

32 sum men. MS: summen.

92 yyf. MS: 3yf. With this construction, I have converted all yoghs to y.

105 of. MS: added in red above peyr.

126 be the. MS: bethe.

129 Mary Maudelyn. As a penitent, lover of Christ, mourner, chief witness of the Resurrection, missionary, and mystic seer, the Magdalene was a key figure in the literature of affective devotion. The numerous references to the saint throughout the Book of Margery Kempe seem designed to indicate a particular identity for Margery who, like the Magdalene, would see herself as one of Jesus' intimate friends or lovers. For a discussion of the role of the Magdalene in the late medieval literature of devotion, including further bibliographical references, see Johnson (1979) and (1984, pp.146-68).For a study of the Magdalene in relation to the late medieval and probably East-Anglian play, the Digby Mary Magdalene, see Davidson. By noting that the text of Margery's life began to take a written form on July 23, the day after the saint's feast day, Kempe suggests that Margery, like Mary, was a potent witness to the new life, that her visions inspired others to "see."

146 gan. MS: be in superscript correction above gan in red.

151 brennyng. MS: brennyg.

160 steryngys. Stirrings, from the verb stirren, is a term frequently used by Richard Rolle, the enormously popular and influential mid-fourteenth-century devotional writer, to describe the physical symptoms of his passionate spiritual ecstasy. It became a "key word" for those writing about or talking about devotion and/or subjectivity. The word itself could indicate either spiritual or physical arousal. Stirren could also mean to set in motion, to turn aside, to rouse, to trouble, to exhort or coax, to inspire or prompt, and to incite. Kempe's uses of it should be seen as one more instance of her self-conscious use of language. For a consideration of Hilton's proscriptive use of the term, see Staley, "Julian of Norwich and the Late Fourteenth-Century Crisis of Authority," in Aers and Staley, Powers of the Holy, pp. 107-78.

183 sche. Not in MS. Meech's emendation.

205 gan. MS: be in superscript above gan in red.

228 he2. MS: het.

233 seyd on. Meech mistranscribes as seyden and emends by adding [o thyng], which is unnecessary since on supplies the "one thing" sense.

250 cowd not. MS: cowdnot.

253 ye know. MS: yeknow.

289 entryng. MS: entryg.

306 wownd of. MS: vy crossed out after of.

309 temptacyon. MS: tamptacyon, with e in superscript above the first a.

332 suasyons. MS: suasynons with the first n expuncted and crossed out.

332 gan. MS: be in superscript above gan in red.

341 and. MS: k crossed out after and.

374 grawnt. MS: grawt.

392 to. to in superscript between gefe and the.

398 ernest peny of hevyn. It is worth noting that Hugh of St. Victor wrote a treatise on the earnest penny as a metaphor of Christ's love of his bride. See his Soliloquy on the Earnest Money of the Soul, trans. Kevin Herbert (Milwaukee: Marquette Christianity Press, 1956).

402 schuld. MS: schul.

406 than. MS: than in superscript between And and anoon.

442 ob. of is occasionally written ob in anticipation of words beginning with b.

462 N. Meech reads this letter as an R (see the note to Meech, p. 20), but it looks more like an N. This usage is consistent with the widespread habit (including that of the scribe of this manuscript) of using the letter N as a "wildcard character." See, for example, the beginning of Chapter 2, where Kempe identifies her father as mayor of the town of N.

462 mor. MS: thow in superscript above mor in red.

486 hir. k crossed out after hir and before bakke.

503 rathyr. Meech transcribes as rathar.

507 grawntyn. MS: grawtyn.

522 comown. Comown, from the verb comowmyn, has come down to us as "commune," but our word seems to me far less allusive than the medieval term. "Common," though it is now used only as an adjective, more closely captures the complicated association encoded in the medieval verb. Comown could be used to describe the act of sharing or entering into a partnership, of acting jointly, of having sexual intercourse, of communicating, or of receiving or administering Holy Communion. Like her equally elastic use of medelyn, Kempe's word-play hints at the many types of communities she considers in her Book.

571 to. Though the word is almost illegible, it looks like to.

622 a. Marked with a caret, in superscript between al and day.

626 mech. the expuncted after of; mech marked with a caret and in superscript between the and pepyl.

626 toke. ke in superscript above to.

629 thow. tho expuncted after wold; thow in superscript above.

671 begynnyng. MS: begynnyg.

678 thowt. MS: thow.

682 woldyst. The words suffer deth are added in very dark ink in large letters in the outer margin. The caret after the phrase corresponds to the caret after woldyst in the text.

692 watyr. fro, which is expuncted in red, follows watyr. wasch it. MS: waschit.

697 hem. MS: to in superscript above hem in red.

700 compunccyon. MS: compuccyon.

711 Thowgh. MS: th, with a caret afterwards, owgh in dark letters above.

714 owyr Lord. MS: crossed out in red. hys. MS: crossed out in red.

722 hir. as crossed through and expuncted after hir.

731 I. l crossed through after I.

735 slawndyr. MS: slawdyr.

804 mend. MS: soull in superscript above mend in red.

810 the. archsh crossed out after the.

813 to. MS: ty. o written in red on top of original y.

823 cam forth. MS: camforth.

829 hir. to crossed out after hir.

838 dalyawns. Lower right corner of the folio has been destroyed.

843 maynten. MS: mayten.

857 behyte. hyte partially destroyed.

863 The chapter break is followed in the MS by a directive note in red. It runs from the chapter into the margin. It reads: it begynnes thus in the tyme the vj lefe efter.The reference directs a reader to chapter 21, which recounts events (the beginning of Margery's special relationship with her confessor) prior to those in chapter 16. See also Introduction, p. 5, for a discussion of these lines.

880 sowle. owl partially destroyed, e completely destroyed.

899 Bridis. MS: Pridis.

899 The Latin titles refer to key works of affective piety that link Margery to the concerns of late medieval lay devotion. See Introduction, pp. 5-6.

902 sumtyme. sumty completely destroyed.

925 had. h and d partially destroyed. There was probably one more word at the end of the line. of is written in the lower margin under she.

949 helde. The word itself is obliterated, but there appears to be space for a four-letter word. Only the upper part of d, about two letter spaces from the left-hand margin, remains. Helde is Meech's suggestion.

972 muste. uste completely destroyed. At the end of the line, there is further space for either a two- or a three-letter word.

979 For a discussion of this attribution to Jerome (which seems not to belong to him but reflects pious popular tradition), see Meech, p. 279, n. 43/7.

982 sete. seet, perhaps in the original hand, is written above sete.

996 and causyd. Only syd is legible; the rest is completely destroyed. Meech's emendation.

1012 levyn. MS: be in red followed by a red hyphen in the margin.

1019 bryte. MS: yte partially destroyed.

1020 dyrke. One, or perhaps two, words may have been destroyed here at the end of the line. the mor. This is Meech's emendation. The lower right-hand corner of the manuscript has been destroyed, and on this final line there is space for perhaps seven to nine more letters.

1023 a tyme. MS: atyme.

1046 eraend. Altered from erden. d changed to a, and d fitted in at the end of the word.

1055 wyth. many expuncted after wyth.

1068 Yyf ye. MS: 3yf ye completely destroyed;  1068 messys. The tops of two letters (perhaps ss) are visible. See also Meech. There is space on the line for another word.

1078 a day. MS: aday.

1092 grace. gr completely destroyed.

1093 I prevyd. Only the d survives. Meech suggests I lovyd here, but the sense seems to indicate God's intent to test those he loves. There are about seven generous letter spaces here in the lower right-hand corner of the folio.

1093-94 that evyr men. Meech's suggestion; the words are completely destroyed.

1118 of. Only the top of a letter, probably f, remains.

1147 creatur. MS: mater.