Zarnecki, George. Art of the Medieval World : Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, the Sacred Arts. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975. Physical Details: 476 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 31 cm. N.B. The same title also appears with the following publishing information: New York: H. N. Abrams, 1975
Nicola, Medieval Architecture, Oxford History of Art, Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2002. Physical Details: 256 p. 147
Sekules, Veronica, Medieval Art, Oxford History of Art, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Physical Details: 228 p. 136 ill. Emphasis on 12th-15th centuries, thematic arrangement, social and intellectual context.
Tomin, Rolf and Achim Bednorz. The Art of Gothic: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne: Könemann, 1999. Physical Details: 521 p. : p., col. ill. ;, 32 cm. Summary: Introduction / Rolf Toman -- Elements of religious and secular Gothic architecture / Pablo de la Riestra -- The beginnings of Gothic architecture in France and its neighbors / Bruno Klein -- The Cathar heresy in southern France / Barbara Borngässer -- Gothic architecture in England / Ute Engel -- Medieval building practice / Christian Freigang -- Late Gothic architecture in France and the Netherlands / Peter Kurmann -- The Papal Palace in Avignon / Christian Freigang -- Gothic architecture of the "German lands" ; Gothic architecture in Scandinavia and East-Central Europe / Pablo de la Riestra -- Medieval castles, knights, and courtly love / Ehrenfried Kluckert -- Gothic architecture in Italy ; Florence and Siena : communal rivalry / Barbara Borngässer -- Medieval cities / Alick McLean -- Late Gothic architecture in Spain and Portugal / Barbara Borngässer -- Gothic sculpture in France, Italy, Germany, and England / Uwe Geese -- Gothic sculpture in Spain and Portugal / Regine Abegg --Gothic painting ; Subjectivity, beauty and nature : medieval theories of art ; Architectural motifs in painting around 1400 ; Narrative motifs in the work of Hans Memling ; Visions of heaven and hell in the work of Hieronymus Bosch ; Gold, light and color : Konrad Kitz ; The depictions of visions and visual perception ; The path to individualism / Ehrenfried Kluckert -- Gothic stained glass / Brigitte Kurmann-Schwarz -- Medieval learning and the arts / Ehrenfried Kluckert -- Gothic goldwork / Harald Wolter-von dem Knesebeck.
Three classic, essential surveys.
Boase, Thomas S. R. English Art 1100-1216.Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953.
Brieger, Peter. English Art 1216-1307 .Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.
Evans, Joan English Art 1307-1461 Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1949; reprint New York: Hacker Books, 1981.
Ages of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet
Anderson, M. D. History and Imagery in British Churches. London: J. Murray, 1995. Physical Details: xxiii, 291 p.,  p. of pl. : 111 ill., 1 map; bibliogr., index. Summary: Addresses the popular interpretation of medieval imagery which mirrors every aspect of social history, from medieval times up to the 18th c. Looks at what principles determined the choice and placing of subjects in a church, why certain biblical scenes appear more often than others, and what the imagery of a medieval church meant to contemporary parishioners. Appendices list subject matter and imagery. Notes: First published 1971.
Thompson, F. H. Studies in Medieval Sculpture. London: Society of Antiquaries, 1983. Physical Details: xi, 229 p. : 110 illustrations; 21 text figures; plans, elevations; maps; bibliography; index. Series: Occasional paper (new series), 3. Summary: Papers given at the Medieval sculpture seminar (October 10, 1980) organized by the Society of Antiquaries and additional papers on recent discoveries. Includes introductory remarks by George Zarnecki, Rosemary Cramp, Alan Borg and Neil Stratford. RILA numbers (for those articles with abstracts), titles and authors are as follows: Some observations on the layout and construction of abstract ornament in Early Christian Irish sculpture, by Nancy EDWARDS (597); Anglo-Saxon sculpture in south-east England before ca.950, by Dominic TWEDDLE (651); A carved slab fragment from St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester, by Jeffrey Keith WEST (654); The Romanesque cloister sculpture at Norwich Cathedral Priory, by Jill A. FRANKLIN (601); Recent discoveries of Romanesque sculpture at St. Albans, by Deborah KAHN (621); Recently discovered Romanesque sculpture in south-east England, by Jane GEDDES (605); The original setting of the apostle and prophet figures from St. Mary's Abbey, York, by Christopher WILSON (656); The Percy tomb at Beverley Minster: the style of the sculpture, by Nicholas DAWTON (595); A group of masons in early fourteenth-century Lincolnshire: research in progress, by Veronica SEKULES (643); Fourteenth-century corbel heads in the Bishop's House, Ely, by Nicola COLDSTREAM (592); Recent studies in the pre-Conquest sculpture of Northumbria, by James LANG (623); Two twelfth-century voussoir stones from Sopwell House, St. Albans, by Eileen ROBERTS (637); The Herefordshire School: recent discoveries, by Richard K. MORRIS (631); Carved stonework from Norton Priory, Cheshire, by J. Patrick GREENE (612); Glastonbury and two Gothic ivories in the United States, by Neil STRATFORD (833). (Staff, RILA, GBR).
Peter and Nigel J. Morgan. Medieval art in
Christopher N. L., David Abulafia, Michael J. Franklin, and Miri
and City, 1000-1500: Essays in Honour of Christopher Brooke. Cambridge,
William David. “Flowing Tacery in Lincolnshire, 1300-1380.”
PhD thesis, Manchester University, 1979. Physical Details: 2 v. (287 p.)
: 256 illustrations; 41 text figures; plans, elevations;
maps. Summary: Describes the development of window tracery
in Lincolnshire from about 1300-1380, with some discussion of relevant
buildings in Nottinghamshire. It seeks to trace the introduction
of curvilinear forms into this part of the country and their subsequent
evolution and dissemination throughout the area and in the surrounding
References: RILA, 10 4986 (1984)
Cherry, John. “De la couleur dans l’édifice médiéval: careaux et carrelages gothiques, III: l’Europe: un séminaire au British Museum en mars 1983. Revue de l’art 63 (1984) 72-78. Physical Details: 8 illustrations. In Summary: Summaries of papers given at the co erence held in 1983 at the British Museum, London, on Medieval pottery tiles: E. Christopher Norton on Medieval tin-glazed painted tiles in northwestern Europe; Matthieu Pinette on the production of tiles in Burgundy during the time of Philippe le Hardi; P.J. Drury on relationships between Medieval floor tiles in East Anglia and the Low Countries; E. Landgraf on designs on Medieval tiles from Cistercian abbeys in Germany; Birgit Als Hansen and Morten Aaman Sorensen on Danish Medieval floor tiles; T. Fanning on Irish tiles; T. Hoekstra on decorated and mosaic tile floors in Utrecht in the late 13th and early 14th cs.; E. Baker on a mid 14th c. tile artist at Warden Abbey, Bedfordshire. Notes: Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art. References: RILA, 13 6290 (1987)
Sherlock, D. “Discoveries at Horsham St. Faith Priory, 1970-1973.” Norfolk Archaeology, 1976, v.36, 202-23, 9 fig., 4 pl. Summary: Les étapes des constructions du 12 au 14s. Les destructions et transformations à partir du 16s. Les trouvailles, en particulier les carreaux de céramique à glaçure colorée, ou décorés par impression, 13-14s., et divers tessons de céramique.
Ann Eljenholm. Seeable Signs: the Iconography of the Seven Sacraments,
1350-1544. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1994. Physical Details:
xxii, 412 p.,  p. of pl. : 102 ill.,
4 maps; bibliogr., index. Summary: An account of the iconography
of the sacraments, looking principally at English work (in particular
the imaged baptismal fonts in
Folke. Mediaeval Baptismal Fonts: An Iconographical Study.
Blatchly, J. M. “The Lost Cross Brasses of Norfolk, 1300-1400.” Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society XIII Part 2/98 (1981): 87-107. Physical Details: 19 illustrations; 10 text figures; diagrams; maps. Summary: Describes and illustrates all known examples
Paul. “The Coronation of theVirgin on the Hastings
Brass at Elsing, Norfolk.” Church Monuments I/1 (1985): 1-9. Physical Details: 4 illustrations.
Summary: Examines the Marian iconography of the brass commemorating
Sir Hugh Hastings, ca.1350. Details suggest a London workshop, while style and iconography provide evidence for the impact of French
art, especially Parisian manuscript illumination associated with
Jean Pucelle, in
Beloe, Edgar Milligen. “A List of Brasses Existing in the Churches of St. Margaret and St. Nicholas, King’s Lynn, in the year 1724,” Transaction of the Cambridge University Association of Brass Collectors 2/1 no. 11 (1892): 57-59, many minor inscriptions without figures are also noted.
H. K. “The Fourteenth-century Flemish Brasses at King’s Lynn.” Archaeological Journal 136 (1979): 151-72. Physical Details:
41 illustrations; bibliography. Summary: Describes brasses
made in the ateliers of Tournai, for burgesses of Lynn (GB), including
Adam de Walsokne, died 1349, and his wife; Robert Braunche, died
1364, and wives, in S. Margaret's Church, King's
Lynn. (Staff, RILA,
Cotman, John Sell. Engravings of Sepulchral Brasses in Norfolk.London: Henry G. Bohn, 1838. Large format book with superb images. The essential first reference.
Wilken, Nigel. “The Birds, the Bishop and the Music of Brass,” Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society 14, no.3 (1988): 205-216. Physical Details: 2 ill. Summary: Discusses the peacock feast frieze at the foot of the brass of Robert Braunche (d.1364) at S. Margaret, King's Lynn, based on the Alexander romance Les voeux du paon, composed ca.1310 by Jacques de Longuyon. Paul Lacroix's illustration in Les arts au moyen âge (Paris, 1874) was most likely based on the brass itself rather than a manuscript illustration as hitherto supposed. The brass is Flemish in origin.
The Brasses of
Trivick, Henry H. The Craft and Design of Monumental Brasses. London: John Baker, 1969.
Norton, Christopher. Dominican Painting in East Anglia: The Thomham Parva Retable and the Musée de Cluny Frontal. Woodbridge, Boydell Press, 1987; Wolfeboro, NH, Boydell Press, 1987. Physical Details: xii,113 p. : 139 illustrations, 11 color; plans, elevations; diagrams; maps; bibliography; index. Summary: On the retable now in the church of S. Mary, Thornham Parva, and the frontal in the Musée de Cluny. In individual essays, Norton offers a reconstruction and argues that both retable and frontal were made for a single altar; Park discusses the iconography as an example of Dominican doctrine and taste; Binski proposes, on the basis of style, that the two paintings were the work of a provincial East Anglian workshop of the 1330s; and Norton discusses the history and provenance of the pieces, and demonstrates with circumstantial evidence that they were almost certainly done for the high altar of the Dominican priory at Thetford, founded 1335. (RILA, GBR).
Sandler, Lucy Freeman. “The Wilton Diptych and Images of Devotion in Illuminated Manuscripts.” Regal Image of Richard II and the Wilton Diptych. -- London, H. Miller, 1997, p.136-154, pl. 17. Physical Details: 22 ill. (1 col.) Summary: Consideration of such features as figural relationships, poses, gestures, attributes, and setting in representations of religious devotion from 14th and early 15th c. manuscripts of various origins may broaden the context in which to view the Wilton Diptych (London, National Gallery), and enrich understanding of its meaning.
Caviness, Madeline Harrison. “A Lost Cycle of Canterbury Paintings of 1220.” Antiquaries Journal 54 (1974): 66-74. Physical Details: 15 illustrations. Summary: Publishes mid-19th c. drawings and sketches by George Austin senior, and George Austin junior in Canterbury Cathedral Library, of paintings then on the vaults of Trinity Chapel. Discusses the style and iconography of the paintings (dated 1220) and makes comparisons with a Canterbury Psalter (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Département des manuscrits, MS lat.770) and sculptures at Wells. Appendix describes sketches. (Courtauld Institute). Notes: Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art.
Eamon. “The Parish, Piety, and Patronage in Late Medieval
Cotton, Simon. “Mediaeval Roodscreens in Norfolk, Their Construction and Painting Dates." Norfolk Archaeology 40/1 (1987): 44-54. Notes: Summary in English. Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art.
Jenkins, Simon. "Ranworth, Norfolk: St. Helen." Country Life (London) 193, no. 25 (24 June, 1999): 153. Physical Details: 1 col. ill. Summary: Brief profile of the church concentrating on its late-15th c. screen which has painted figural decoration of unusual quality. Notes: Source of data: BHA, Bibliography of the history of art. References: BHA, 9 18622 (1999)
Whittingham, A. B. “Ranworth Church.” Archaeological Journal London, Manchester, 137 (1989): 291-295. Summary: L'église commencée en 1415. La clôture de choeur et ses peintures, v. 1430-40: iconographie, technique, restaurations récentes. Notes: Source of data: Répertoire d'art et d'archéologie (RAA)
Aries, Philippe, Images of Man and Death Cambrige Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985. trans of Images de l'homme devant la mort 1983 Physical Details: 271 p. 8 p. of plates, ill.
Paul. Medieval Death : Ritual and Representation.
London: British Museum Press, 1996. Physical Details: 224
p. : ill. (some
col.) ; 25 cm.
Boase, Thomas S. R., Death in the Middle Ages: Mortality, Judgment and Remembrance. London: Thames and Hudson, 1972.
Crossley, Frederick Herbert. English Church Monuments A. D. 1150-1550; An Introduction to the Study of Tombs & Effigies of the Mediaeval Period. London, B.T. Batsford, Edition: New issue, 1933
Erwin, Tomb Sculpture: Four Lectures on its Changing Aspects
Gaddes, Jane. “Some Tomb Railings in Canterbury Cathedral.” Collectanea historica: essays in memory of Stuart Rigold Maidstone: Kent Archaeological Society, 1981. Physical Details: 8 illustrations; plans, elevations. Summary: Argues that four sets of iron railings, for the tombs of Edward the Black Prince (d.1376), Archbishop William Courtenay (d.1396), Henry IV (d.1413) and his wife Joan of Navarre (d.1436) and Archbishop Henry Chichele (d.1443), were all commissioned in connection with the construction of Chichele's tomb in 1425.
Roberts, Marion. “The Effigy of Bishop Hugh de Northwold in Ely Cathedral.” Burlington Magazine 130, n.1019 (Feb 1988): 77-84. Physical Details: 16 ill., plans. Summary: Ornately carved mid-13th c. Purbeck marble effigy. Discusses spiritual and temporal imagery, and speculates about the slab's original location in the cathedral. Notes: Source of data: BHA, Bibliography of the history of art. References: BHA, 1 5308 (1991)
Patricia Bolin. The Monumental Tombs of Medieval
Richard. The Golden Age of English Manuscript
Painting, 1200-1500. London, Chatto & Windus; New
York, Braziller, 1981.
Physical Details: 119 p. : 70 illustrations, 40 color; 23 text figures; maps; bibliography.
Series: Illuminated manuscript series. Summary:
Introduction and commentaries to 46 color illustrations of English
manuscripts of the 13th-15th cs., including the Lindesey Psalter
(MS 59, Society of Antiquaries, London), Lives of SS. Alban and
Amphibalus (MS 177, formerly MS E.I.40, Library, Trinity College,
Dublin), Trinity College Apocalypse (MS R.16.2, Trinity College,
Cambridge University), Gorleston Psalter (MS Add. 49622, British
Library, London), Lisle Psalter (MS Arundel 83 II, British Library,
London), Liber Regalis (MS 38, Westminster Abbey, London), Sherborne
Missal (Collection of the Duke of Northumberland, Alnwick Castle),
Beaufort-Beauchamp Hours (MS Roy. 2 A.XVIII, British Library, London).
In the introduction the period is surveyed and the different centers
of production described; the work of Matthew Paris at Saint Albans
and the East Anglian school are re-appraised,
and the role of court and aristocratic patronage assessed. (Richard
Michael A. “The Harnhulle Psalter-Hours; an Early
Fourteenth Century English Illuminated Manuscript at Downside Abbey.”
British Archaeological Association Journal CXXXIV
(1981): 81-99. Physical Details: 25 illustrations. Summary:
The psalter (MS 26533, Downside Abbey, Somerset), was made for the Harnhulle family, probably for use
in Suffolk after 1317. Identifies the work of two hands and examines
links with the Gorleston (MS Add. 49622, British Library) and Queen
Mary (MS Royal 2.B.VII, British Library) groups of East Anglian
manuscripts. Analyzes texts and decoration.
Winter, Patrick M. “Une réalisation exceptionnelle d’enlumineurs
francais et anglais vers 1300; le Bréviaire de Renaud de Bar,
évêque de Metz.” Congrès national des Sociétés savantes,
103d. Nancy-Metz, 1978. Physical Details:
21 illustrations. Summary: Points to the importance of provincial
French schools for miniature painting of northern Europe ca.1300, and describes fruitful exchanges between these centers and
Grossinger, Christa. “English Misericords of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries and their Relationship to Manuscript Illuminations.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes XXXVIII (1975): 97-108. Physical Details: 29 illustrations Summary: Relates the development of misericords to that of contemporary arts. Compares examples at Exeter ca.1230-70 to scenes in bestiaries and 12th c. MS initials and at Ely ca.1339-41 to margins of East Anglian MSS; discusses the diverse sources in illumination, sketchbooks and sculpture. (Courtauld Institute).
Hahn, Cynthia. “Peregrinatio et Natio: The Illustrated Life of Edmund, King and Martyr.” Gesta 30, no.2 (1991): 119-139. Physical Details: 19 ill. Summary: Analysis of the iconography of the miniatures in the manuscript (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M. 736), which was produced ca.1130 in the monastery of Bury S. Edmunds, the home of the relics of the saint and king. Shows how the illumination seeks to present the monastery and its church as an English pilgrimage center. Edmund is represented as a pilgrim king, and as such may be meant to serve as a model of the judicious use of power for the contemporary king, Henry I. The manuscript also proposes him as a candidate for national patron saint.
Heskop, T. A. “The Production and Artistry of the Bury Bible.” Bury St. Edmunds: medieval art, architecture, archaeology, and economy. London: British Archaeological Association, 1998, 172-185, pl. XLI-XLV. Physical Details: 10 ill. (2 col.) Summary: Looks at some hitherto neglected difficulties affecting the understanding of the Bury Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University, Corpus Christi College, MS 2). Examines the evidence for the planning and production of the book, particularly some anomalies in the first quire, the use of double thickness vellum for much of the illumination, and the range of capital lettering styles in the manuscript. Together these suggest a number of uncertainties, contingencies and possibly even disruptions in the commission. Considers the choice of subject matter and an aspect of the construction of the pictorial composition. Suggests that the artist, Master Hugo, seems to have imposed his own ethos on the representation of the narratives both as regards their emotional content (or lack of it), and the invention of the iconography. Also introduces a recently discovered fragment of the missing second volume of the Bible, which was recently sold by a London book dealer. The conclusion places the Bible within the context of manuscript commissions at Bury in an attempt to account for the quality, quantity and character of the illumination.
Caviness, Madeline H. Stained Glass Windows (Typologie
des sources du moyen âge occidental, 75), Turnhout,
Marks, Richard. Stained Glass in
Caviness, Madeline H. The Early Stained Glass of Canterbury Cathedral: circa 1175-1220, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.
Id. Paintings on Glass: Studies in Romanesque and Gothic Monumental Art, Aldershot, Hampshire: Valorium, 1997, which includes “Bible Stories in Windows: Were They Bibles for the Poor?” entry XII.
Brown, Sarah and Lindsay MacDonald, eds. Life, Death, and Art: The Medieval Stained Glass of Fairford Parish Church, Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing: Cheltenham and Gloucestershire College of Higher Education, 1997.
Winston, Charles. M¾moires Illustrative of the Art of Glass-Painting. London: Murray, 1865.
Woodforde, Christopher. The Norwich School of Glass-Painting in the Fifteenth Century, London: Oxford University Press, 1950.
Vitrearum Medii Aevi
I. Newton, Peter, with the collaboration of Jill Kerr. The County of Oxford. A Catalogue of Medieval Stained Glass London, 1979.
II. Caviness, Madeline A. The Windows of Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury, London, 1971.
III.1. French, Thomas, David O'Connor. The Medieval Painted Glass of York Minster, fasc. I., The West Windows of the Nave, London, 1987
Vitrearum Medii Aevi
Penny. The Medieval Stained Glass of the County of Lincolnshire, London, 1996. See also Hebgin-Barnes, Penelope. The
Thirteenth and Fourteenth Century Stained Glass of Lincolnshire (Thirteenth Century,
Marks, Richard. The Medieval Stained Glass of the County of Hamptonshire, London, 1998.
Duffy, Eamon. Stripping of the Altars, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992],
Van Os, Henk. The Art of Devotion in the Late Middle Ages in Europe 1300-1500 Amsterdam, 1994.
Ross, Ellen M. The
Grief of God: Images of the Suffering Jesus in Late Medieval
Brooke, Rosalind and Christopher. Popular Religion in the Middle Ages : Western Europe, 1000-1300. New York : Barnes & Noble, 1996. (N.B. Originally published in Great Britain: London: Thames & Hudson, 1984.) Physical Details: 176 p. : ill., 1 plan; bibliogr. ref., index. Summary: Endeavors to explore the religious aspirations or religious consciousness of the laity in western Europe during the High Middle Ages. Acknowledging that most of the laity was illiterate, the authors attempt to reconstruct popular religion through the physical setting of the lives of the common people, synthesizing the many media which they would have experienced: churches, sculpture, stained glass, painting, and metalwork. Individual chapters study relics and pilgrims, cults of the saints, popular and unpopular religion, the laity and the Church, the Bible, and (Last) Judgment.
Schmitt, Jean-Claude. “Imago: de l'image à l'imaginaire.” L'image: fonctions et usages des images dans l'Occident médiéval": Actes du 6e International workshop on medieval societies: Centre Ettore Majorana: Erice, Sicile, 17-23 octobre 1992. -- Paris, Le Léopard d'or, 1996, p. 29-37. Summary: L'auteur étudie les différentes notions que recouvre le terme imago dans la culture chrétienne de l'Occident médiéval. Il évoque le rapport entre les images matérielles (peintes ou sculptées), les reliquaires, les rêves et les visions. Au Moyen Age, s'est constituée une véritable civilisation de l'image dont l'évolution s'amorce dès l'époque carolingienne, s'amplifie avec l'apparition du culte des statues-reliquaires et se avec l'usage des images dans la dévotion des mystiques visionnaires du 13e siècle.
Schmitt, Jean-Claude. “La culture de l'image.” Annales (Paris. 1946) 1996, v. 51, no. 1, jan-fév, p. 3-36, ISSN 0395-2649. Physical Details: 11 ill. Summary: L'auteur analyse l'évolution de la culture de l'image en Occident au cours du Moyen Age considéré dans la longue durée (4e-15e siècle). Après avoir défini les trois aspects fondamentaux de l'image, la notion théologico-anthropologique, l'image en tant que production humaine et les images mentales, il décrit l'instauration progressive d'un culte des images et de sa justification théologique. Du 4e au 11e siècle, ce culte est réservé à la croix. Entre le 10e et le 13e siècle, apparaissent les crucifix et les statues-reliquaires, ainsi que les légendes sur les images acheiropoiètes. La société gothique voit l'émergence d'un rapport subjectif et affectif lié aux expériences mystiques et à l'imagerie de dévotion. Les oeuvres de Dürer, notamment ses autoportraits, marquent une solution de continuité qui s'inscrit cependant dans cette évolution.
Morgan, Nigel. “Texts
and Images of Marian Devotion in Fourteenth-Century
Boskovits, Miklós. “Immagine e preghiera nel tardo Medioevo: osservazioni preliminari.” Arte cristiana. LXXVI/724 (Jan-Feb 1988): 93-104. Physical Details: 14 illustrations. Summary: Explores a change in the meaning of the devotional image between the 13th and 15th centuries, from static to interactive, and the ways in which painting and saintly visions of the period influenced each other, contributing to the development of realism in Christian iconography. Examples are drawn chiefly from Italian painting. (RILA, ITA).