Title Page
         Spanish Civil War
         Mexican Revolution            Third Reich
           Soviet Empire
  People's Republic of  China

In memory of
---------- "Under the Heel of the Reds in North China," Woodstock Letters,
            77 (May 1948), 97-105

---------- La Chiesa del Silenzio Guarda a Roma (F. Ferrari, 1957)

---------- Continued Persecution of Christians in China (Puebla Institute, 1993)

---------- Religious Persecution in the People's Republic of China (June 4th China Support, 1994)

---------- China, The Untold Story (Voice of the Martyrs, 1997)

---------- Inside China (4th ed.; Aidan, 1986)

Adige, Zorzi, La Chiesa Nascosta (Baldini & Castoldi, 1999)

Amnesty International, People's Republic of China (Amnesty International,1996)

Anderson, George, M., "Jesuits in Jail," Studies, 27: 4 (September 1995)

Anonymous, Jesuits in China, 1949-1990 (China P. Macau Hong Kong P. DCA, 1990)

Asia Watch Committee, Continuing Religiouis Repression in China (Asia Watch, 1993)

Athenoux, Andre, Le Christ Crucifie au Pays de Mao (Colmar, Alsatia, 1968)

Barry, Peter J., "A Brief History of the Missionary Work of the Maryknoll Fathers in China" (M. A. Thesis, National Taiwan U., 1977)

Battochio, Giuseppe, Ricordi di Mons. Fulgenzio Pasini, Missionario e Vescovo di Sanyuan (Lito-Tipografia Bertato, 1988)

Bauer, Thomas J., The Systematic Destruction of the Catholic Church in China (World Horizons, 1954)

Becker, Jasper, Le Grande Famine de Mao (Editions Dagorno, 1998)

Becker, Kurt, I Met a Traveler [Thomas Phillips], (Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 1958)

Bergman, Susan, "In the Shadow of the Martyrs," Christianity Today, 40: No. 9  (Aug. 12, 1996), 18-25

Bernard, Prosper M., and Prosper M. Bernard, Jr., In China Forever (S & C Press, Montreal, 2001)

Betz, Eva K., To Far Places (Hawthorn, 1962)

Bonnichon, Andre, Law in Communist China (International Commission of Jurists, 1956)

Carmelite Sister Teresa of Jesus, If the Grain of Wheat Dies [Francis Xavier Chu] (Provincial for the China Apostolate, n. d.)

Cary-Elwes, Columba, China and the Cross (Longmans, Green & Co., 1957)

Castro, Regis, A Mao Ponderosa de Jesus No Meu Coracao (Raboni, 1992)

Caufield, Caspar, Only a Beginning (Passionist Press, 1990)

Cheung, Tai Ming, "Making New Martyrs," Far Eastern Economic Review 147: 7 (Feb. 15, 1990), 20-21

Chinese Bishops, The NewlyCanonized Martyr-Saints of China (Regional Episcopal Conference in Taiwan, 2000)

Clement, Marcel, El Comunismo Frente a Dios (Speiro, 1974)

Clifford, John W., In the Presence of My Enemies (W. W. Norton, 1963)

Coiteux, Ferdinand, Pere Didace Arcand, O. F. M. (Editions Franciscaines, 1961)

Crotti, Amelio, Piuforti della Tormenta (Pontificio Istituto Missioni estere, 1957)

Crouch, Archie R., Christianity in China (M. F. Sharpe, 1989)

Damme, Daniel van, Necrologium Fratrum Minorum in Sinis (3rd ed.;
            Tang King Po School, 1978)

Danyum, [Dennis],  Lilies Amongst Thorns (Sovereign World, 1991)

DeJaeger, Raymond J., The Apostle of China (Catholic Truth Society, 1954)

Devaux, Claudia, and George B. Wong, Bamboo Swaying in the Wind (Loyola Press, 2000)

Donovan, John F., The Pagoda and the Cross (Scribner, 1967)

Donnithorne, Audrey, "China's Drowned Churches," The Tablet, 18
            September   1999, 1246.

Dragon, Antonio, En Mission Parmi les Rouges (Le Messenger Canadien,  1946)

---------- Le Pere Bernard (Le Messenger Canadien, 1948)

Dufay, Francis, and Douglas A. Hyde, Red Star versus the Cross
            (Paternoster, 1954)

Fahy, Eugene E., "Burial Above Ground," Life, September 8, 1952, 138

Flechner, Johannes, Thomas Kardinal Tien (Steyler Verlag, 1975)

Fleming, Peter J., "Chosen for China" (Doctoral Dissertation, Graduate
         Theological Union, Berkley, CA, 1987)

Fox, Thomas C., "Chinese Catholics seek identity role in turbulent times,"National Catholic Reporter, January 29, 1999

Galter, Albert, The Red Book of the Persecuted Church (Newman Press,

Gheddo, Piero, Lorenzo Bianchi di Hong Kong (Istituto Geograficao de
          Agostini, 1988)

Ghestin, Anatole, Desormais Je M'Appelle Ting Ming-Cheng (Association "Souvenir du Pere Anatole Ghestin [1873-1961]," 1995)

Gil, Pablo, Misonero y Martir [Tomas Esteban] (Ediciones los Misioneros, 1956)

Giles, Brother, Yentou New Year (Franciscan Fathers, 1959)

Greene, Robert H., Calvary in China (Maryknoll, 1953)

Hanson, Eric 0., Catholic Politics in China and Korea (Orbis, 1980)

Himmelfarb, Anne, The Martyrs of Maoism (ed. by Nina Shea; Puebla
            Institute, 1992)

Haepp, Ingelore, "Faith made in China," U. S. Catholic, 63: No. 8 (August  1998), 24-28

Heyndrickz, Jeroom, "Why China Snubbed the Vatican," The Tablet, 15 January

Houle, John A., "Thoughts in Prison," The Catholic Mind, 56 (1958), 266

Hsu, Cheng-pin, Hsu Cheng-pin chu Chiao tsan Chien (Wen tao chu pan she, 1977)

Jany, Andre, Les Torturds de la Chine (Librairie Mignard, 1958)

Jochum, Alfons, Donner im Fernen Osten (St. Gabriel, 1984)

Kerrison, Ray, Bishop Walsh of Maryknoll (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1962)

Ladany, Laszlo, The Catholic Church in China (Freedom House, 1987)

---------- The Communist Party of China and Marxism (Hong Kong U. Press,  1992)

Lam, Anthony S. K., The Catholic Church in Present Day China
            (Vierbiest Foundation, 1997)

Langlais, Jacques, Les Jesuites du Quebec en Chine, 1918-1955 (Presses  de l'Universite Laval, 1979)

Lazzarotto, Angelo S., La Chiesa Cattolica in Cina (Jaca Book, 1982)

Lefeuvre, Jean, Les Enfants dans la Ville (Temoignage Chretien, 1957)

Leffe, Jean de, Chretiens dans la Chine de Mao (Desclee de Brouwer,

Leung, Beatrice, Sino- Vatican Relations (Cambridge, 1992)

---------- "Religious Freedom and the Constitution in the People's Republic ofChina," Diskus, 3: 1 (1995), 1-18

Lernoux, Penny,  Hearts on Fire (Orbis, 1993)

Lu, Cheng-Hsiang, Way of Confucius and Christ (Burns Oates, 1948)

Lu, Matthias, "Martyrdom for Truth and Liberty in the People's Republic of China (1949-1996), The Fifth World Congress on Christian Philosophy, August 20-25, 1996, Lublin Poland

Lyall, Leslie T., Come Wind, Come Weather (Hodder & Stoughton, 1961)

---------- Red Sky at Night (Moody, 1969)

---------- The Church in Mao's China (Moody, 1970)

---------- New Spring for China? (Hodder & Stroughton, 1979)

---------- God Reigns in China (Hodder & Stoughton, 1985)

Madsen, Richard, China's Catholics (U. of California, 1998)

Malatesta, Edward J., and others  CHINA: A History of Martyrs, A Future of Faith (National  Jesuit News White  Paper on China, December 1994/January 1995)

Marshall, Paul A., Their Blood Cries Out (Word Publishing, 1997)

Martino, Pasquale de, Nel Carcere di Mao (I. S. M. E., Edizioni Missionarie, 1961)

Mary Servata, Sister, A Cross in China (Cuchullain Publications, 1989)

Maryknoll, Papal Documents Related to the New China (Orbis, 1985)

Mateos, Fernando, China Jesuits in East Asia (Taipei: s. n, 1995)

McGrath, Aeden, "Heroic Witness of Legionaries in China," The Immaculate 19 (1968): No. 1

Monsterleet, Jean, Les Martyres de Chine Parlent (Amiot-Dumont, 1953)

---------- Martyrs in China (H. Regnery, 1956)

Myers, James T., Enemies Without Guns (Paragon, 1992)

Order of Preachers, Witnesses of the Faith in the Orient (Provincial Secretariat of Missions, 1989)

Palmer, Gretta, God's Underground in Asia (Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1953)

Politi, Giancarlo, Martiri in Cina (Missionaria Italiana, 1988)

O'Reilly, Luke, Passing the Torch (Columba, 1995)

Pellegrino, Eugenio, Mao Cerca un Papa (3d. ed.; Direz. Naz. Pont. Opere)  Missionaire,1953)

Pendergast, Mary Carita, Havoc in Hunan (St. Elizabeth, 1991)

Phillips, Thomas, I Met a Stranger (Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 1958)

Pius XII, Pope, Evangelii Praecones (Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 1951)

---------- Ad Sinarum Gentes (Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 1954)

----------  Schism in China (Sword of the Spirit, 1958)

Rachilli, Candido, Il Delinquente Asiatico "666" (2nd ed.; Scuola tip.
            Francescana, 1953)

Renaud, Rosario, Le Diocese de Suchow, Chine (Editions Bellarmin, 1982)

Rummel, R. J., China's Bloody Century (Transaction Publication, 1991)

Ryan, Thomas, "Persecution in China," Letters and Notices, 60 (1953), 105-112

Scanlon, Patrick J., Stars in the Sky (Trappist, 1984)

Sernagiotto, Antonino, Un Francescano in Cina (Montebellunese, 1995)

Shen, Louis, "Growing up in the Church," America (January 23, 1993)

Sih, Paul K. T., Decision for China (Regnery, 1959)

Sipe, Onjya, China Christian Martyrs of the Twentieth Century

Spence, Jonathan, Mao Zedong (Lipper/Viking, 2000)

Suigo, Carlo, In the Land of Mao Tse-tung (Allen and Unwin, 1953)

Tang, Dominic, How Inscrutable his Ways! (Aidan, 1987)

Tang, Edmond, and Jean-Paul Wiest, The Catholic Church in Modem China (Orbis, 1993)

Tennien, Mark A., No Secret is Safe Behind the Bamboo Curtain (Farrar,
          Straus & Young, 1952)

Tyler, Patrick E., "Catholics Persecuted in China," Fatima News & Views,April 21, 1997

Van Coillie, Dries, "I was Brainwashed in Peking." (Vierbiest Foundation, 1969)

Walsh, James E., Zeal for Your House (Maryknoll, 1976)

Wang, Giuseppe, Martirologio della Chiesa Cattolica in Cina (Edizione Alma  Mater, 1968)

Wang, Mary, The Chinese Church that will not die (Tyndale House, 1972)

---------- With God in China (Dimension Books, 1977)

Wedge, Florence, Franciscan Bishop in China (Franciscan Publications, 1968)

Wiest, Jean-Paul, Maryknoll in China (M. E. Sharpe, 1988)

Winance, Eleutherius, The Communist Persuasion (P. J. Kenedy, 1958)

Wong, George B. [Bernard Brown], "Candle in the Wind," Tablet, (December 24/31, 1994)


Almighty and Eternal God, Comforter of the
afflicted, and Strength of the suffering, grant that our brothers and sisters of China who share our faith, may obtain, through the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary and our holy Martyrs, peace in Your service, strength in time of trial, and the grace to glorify You, through Jesus Christ Our Lord.  Amen.
Martyrs of China
Leaders of Catholic Church in China Imprisoned
Martyrs of the Pontifical Institute of the Foreign Missions
The New Chinese Saints
China, Land of the Martyrs
The Blessed Chinese Martyrs
The Blessed Chinese Martyrs Catholic Church
Prisoners of Conscience
2001 Report of Persecuted Chinese Catholics and Non-Catholics
The 120 Martyrs of China
The Destruction of Hundreds of Christian Churches
Five Chinese Bishops Died in Prison Before 1964
Report on Persecution of Bishops in China
Twenty-Six Native Bishops at Communist Conquest in 1949
Arrest of Auxiliary Bishop Jiang Ming Yuan of Zhao Xian in 2000
Persecuted Chinese Archbishops and Bishops
Auxiliary Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Baoding [Paoting] (b. 1949)
Bishop Melchior Chang K'o-hing of Siwaantze (1914-1988)
Bishop Vito Chang Tso-huan of Sinyang (1903-1982)
Bishop Francis Xavier Chao Cheng-sheng, S. J., of Xian-xian (1894-1970)
Bishop Giobbe Chen Chi-ming, C.M., of Chengting (1891-1959)
Bishop Joseph Chen Chu of Zhanjiang (b. 1922)
Bishop Peter Chen Jianzhang of Baoding (1920-1994)
Archbishop Joseph Chow [Chou] Chi-shih, C. M., of Nanchang (1892-1972) +
Bishop Anthony Chow [Zhou] Wei-tao, O. F. M., of Feng-xiang (1905-1983)
Bishop Simone Chu Kai-men, S. J. of Haimen (1868-1960)
Bishop Matthias D[T]uan [Y]in-min[g] of Wanxian (1908-2001)
Bishop Peter Joseph Fan Xueyan of Baoding (1907-1992) +
Auxiliary Bishop Joseph Fan Zhong Liang, S. J., of Shanghai (b. 1918)
Bishop John Gao Kexian of Yantai (1928-2004) +
Bishop Matthias Gu Zheng of Sining [Xining]
Bishop Francis Xavier Guo Zhengji of Inner Mongolia (1914-2004)
Bishop John Han Dingxiang of Weixian [Yong Nian] (1937-2007))
Bishop Han Jingtao of Jilin (b. 1921)
Bishop Francis HanTing-pi of Hungtung  (1909-1991)
Bishop Michael He Jemin of Ningbo (1917-2004)
Bishop Peter Hou Jingwen of Cangzhou (1927-1999)
Bishop Joseph Hu Jo-Shaan, C. M., of Taichow (1881-1963)+
Bishop Michael Huang Woze of Nanchong (1905-2004)
Bishop Julius Jia Zhi-guo of Chengting [Zheng-ding] (b. 1935)
Bishop Aloysius Jin Luxian, S. J.,  of Shanghai (b. 1914)
Ignatius Cardinal Kung Pin-Mei of Shanghai (1901-2000)
Bishop Simon Lei Chang-hsia of Fenyang (1915-1963) +
Bishop John Baptist Liang Xisheng of Khifeng (b.1920)
Archbishop Anthony Li Duan of Xian (1927-2006)
Bishop Peter Li Hongye of Luoyang (b. 1920)
Bishop Pacificus Li Huan-de, O. F. M., of Ye-nan (1904-1973)
Bishop Lucas Li Jingfeng of Feng Xiang (b. 1920)
Bishop Louis Li Pai-yu of Chowchich (1908-1980)
Bishop Stephen Li Side of  Tientsin  [Tianjin] (b. 1927)
Bishop Joseph Li Tao-nan of Puchi (1902-1951)
Bishop John Liu Dingham of Xianxian (b. 1917)
Bishop Odorico Liu Ho-Teh, O. F. M., of Hankou (1911-2001)
Bishop Paul Li Zhenrong, S. J., of Xianxian (1919-1992)
Bishop James David Lin Xi-li [Xili] of Wenzhou (b. 1918)
Auxiliary Bishop Paul Liu Shuhe of Yixian (1919-1993)
Bishop Liu Di Fen of An Guo (d. 1992)
Bishop Peter Liu Guandong of Yixian (b. 1919)
Bishop Philippe Ma Ji of Pingliang (1918-1999)
Bishop Joseph Meng Ziwen of Nanning (b. 1902)
Bishop Thomas Niu Hui-ching of Yangku (1895-1973)
Archbishop Ignacius P'i-Shu-Shih of Mukden o Fentien (1897-1978)
Bishop Matthias Pei Xiangde [Shangde]of Beijing (1918-2001)
Bishop Jin Peixian of Liaoning (1924-2008)
Bishop John Chang Pi-te  of Chaohsien (Zhaoxian) (1893-1976)
Auxiliary Bishop Paul Shi Chunjie of Baoding (1920-1991) +
Auxiliary Bishop Cosmas Shi [Xi] Engxiang [Jing-xiang] of Yixian (b. 1927)
Bishop Melchior Shi Hongzhen of Tianjin (b. 1927)
Bishop James Su Zhimin of Baoding (b. 1932)
Archbishop Dominic Tang Yee Ming, S. J., of Canton, (1908-1995)
Bishop Paul Ten Gan-lin of Kiating (1905-1990)
Thomas Cardinal Tien-Ken-Sin, S. V. D., of Beijing (1890-1967)
Bishop Joseph Tsui Shou-hsun of Yungnien (1877-1955)
Bishop Alphonsus Tsung Huai-mo, O. F. M., of Yentai (1904-19??)
Bishop Matthias Tuan In-Min of Wanhsien (1908-2001)
Bishop Joseph Wan Tsu-Chang, O. F. M.,  of Hengchow (1908-1961) +
Archbishop Francis Wang Hsueu-ming of Suiyuan (1910-1951)
Bishop John Baptist Wang Jin of Taiyuan (b. 1924)
Bishop Casmir Wang Mi-lu of Tianshui (b. 1943)
Bishop Peter Wang Mu-To of Xuanhua (1904-1954)
Bishop John Baptist Wang Tseng-Yi, C. M., of Ankwo (1884-1951)
Bishop Paul Wen-cheng (Uamuencem) of Shunking (1881-1961)
Bishop Joseph Wei Jing Yi [Jingyi] of Qiqihar (b. 1958)
Bishop James Xie Shi-guang of Mindong (b. 1915)
Bishop Joseph Xu Zhixuan of  Wanhsien [Wanxian] (b. 1916)
Bishop Alfonsus Yang Guangyan of Zhouzhi (1929-2004)
Bishop Anthony Humilis Yang Kuang C'hi, O. F. M., of Yutze (1912-1978) +
Bishop Philip Yang Libo of Lanzhou (1918-1998)
Archbishop John Yang Shudao of  Foochow  [Fuzhou] (b. 1919)
Bishop Francis Yi Hsuan-hua of Siangyang (1900-1974)
Bishop Bartholomew Yu Cheng-di[-ti] of Hanchung (b. 1929)
Paul Cardinal Yu Pin of Nan-jing (1901-1978)
Bishop Giuseppe Maria Yuen K'ai-chih (Ching Ping) of Chumatien (1898-1969)
Bishop Thomas Zeng Jingmu of Yu Jiang (b. 1920)
Bishop Philip Zhao Zhendong of Xuanhua (1921-2007)
Bishop Damas Zhang Hamim of Kirin [Jilin] (b. 1924)
Bishop Peter Zhang (Chang) Bain Ren [Bairen]of Hanyang (1915-2005)
Bishop Zhang Jiumu of Xuanhua (1918-1999)
Bishop Melchior Zhang Ke-xing of Xi-wan-xi (1914-1988)
Bishop Louis Zhang Jiashu of Shanghai (1892-1988)
Bishop Joseph Zhang Weizhu of Cangzhou (b. 1959)
Bishop Agostino Zhao Jingong of Gansu (1928-2004)
Bishop Peter Zheng Jianghang  of Boading (d. 1994)
Bishop Wang Zhenye of Yulin (1914-1999)
Bishop Anthony Zhong Quanzhang of Meizhou (1921-2000)
113 Foreign Bishops at Communist Conquest in 1949
(Of Those 113, Were about 12 Americans [USA])

Persecuted Foreign Archbishops and Bishops
Archbishop Paul J. Albouy, M. E. P., of Nanning (1880-1954)
Bishop Michael A. Arduino, S. D. B., of Shiuchow (1909-1972)
Bishop Antonio Barosi of Kaifeng (1901-1941) +
Bishop Teofano A. Bassi, S. X., of Loyang (1887-1970)
Bishop Stanislas Henri Baudry, M. E. P., of Ningyuan (1887-1954)
Vicar Apostolic Emeritus Tommaso Berutti, S.  J., of Pengpu (1888-1975)
Bishop Emeritus Lorenzo Bianchi, P. I. M. E., of Hong Kong (1899-1885)
Bishop Rene D. Boisguerin, M. E. P.,  of Suifu (1901-1998)
Bishop Theodor (Herman) Breher, O. S. B., of Yenki (1889-1959)
Bishop Leopoldo Brellinger, S. J., of Kinghsien (1893-1967)
Archbishop Theodore Buddenbrock, S. V. D.,  of Lanchow (1878-1959)
Archbishop Dominic Luca Capozi, O. F. M., of Taiyuan (1899-1991)
Bishop Alexander Carlo, M. E. P., of Lanlung (1881-1952) +
Bishop Cipriani Cassini, S. J., of Pengbu (1894-1951)
Bishop Horace Ferruccio Ceol, O. F. M., of Kichow (1911-1990)
Archbishop Joseph Ceuzisce, C. M., of Nanchang (1892-1972)
Bishop Mario Civelli, P. I. M. E., of Weihwei (1890-1966)
Bishop Patrick Cleary of Nancheng, S. S. C., (1886-1970)
Bishop Philip Cote, S. J., of Suchow (1896-1970)/USA
Bishop Andrew J. F. Defebvre, C. M., of Ningpo (1886-1967)
Archbishop Alexander Derouineau, M. E. P., of Kunming (1898-1973)
Bishop Leon Jean DeSmedt, C. I. M. C., of Siwantze (1881-1951) +
Bishop Gustave Joseph Deswazieres, M. E. P., of Pakhoi (1882-1958)
Archbishop Giovanni Giuseppe Giorgio Deymier, C. M., of Hangchow (1886-1956)
Bishop Frederick A. Donaghy, M. M., of Wuchow (1893-1988)/USA
Bishop Emeritus Louis Durand, O. F. M., of Yentai (1885-1972)
 Prefect Apostolic Eugene E. Fahy, S. J., of Yangzhou (1911-1997)/USA
Vicar Apostolic Emeritus Paul Albert Faveau, C. M., of Western Chekiang (1859-1949)
Bishop Alfonso M. Ferrani. O. F. M., of Laohokow (1892-1966)
Bishop Pietro Ermenegildo Focaccia, O. F. M., of Yutze (1886-1953)
Archbishop Francis Xavier Ford, M. M., of Kaying (1892-1952)/USA +
Archbishop Antonio Pietro Giovanni Fourquet, M. E. P., of Canton (1872-1952)
Bishop Auguste Ernest Desire Marie Gaspais. M. E. P., of Kirin [Jilin] (1884-1952)
Bishop Edward J. Galvin, S. S. C., of Hanyang (1882-1956)
Bishop Peter G. Grimm, O. F. M. Cap., of Tsinchow (1901-1972)
Bishop Edgar Anthony Haering, O. F. M., of Shohchow (1894-1971)
Bishop Gerardo Faustino Herrero Garrote, O. S. A., of Changteh (1885-1965)
Bishop Francesco Hoowaarts, S. V. D., of Tsaochow (1878-1954)
Vicar Apostolic Emeritus Juvencio Hospital de la Puebla, O. S. A., of Northern Hunan (1870-1957)
Bishop Emeritus Celestino Ibanez y Aparicio, O. F. M., of Yenan (1873-1951)
Archbishop Francis Xavier Jantzen, M. E. P., of Chunking (1885-1953)
Archbishop Cyril Rudolf Jarre, O. F. M., of Tsinan (1878-1952) +
Bishop Rembert C. Kowalski, O. F. M., of Wuchang (1884-1970)/USA
Bishop Inácio Krause, C.M., of Chenting (1896-1984)
Bishop Francis G. Kramer, O. F. M.,  of Lu An (1903-1998)
Bishop Biagio Sigibaldo Kurz, O. F. M., of Yungchow (1894-1973)
Archbishop Theodore Labrador Fraile, O. P., of Foochow (1888-1980)
Archbishop Secondino Petronio  Lacchio, O. F. M., of Changsha (1901-1976)
Bishop Lucien B. Lacoste, SS. CC., of Tali (1905-1989)
Bishop Luigi Lapierre of Szepinkai (1880-1952)
Bishop Ignacio Gregorio Larranaga Lasa, O. F. M. Cap., of Pingliang (1892-1975)
Bishop Jean Larrart, M. E. P., of Kweyang (1884-1966)
Bishop Eugenio Lebouille, C. M., of Yungping (1878-1957)
Coadjutor Bishop Emeritus Charles Joseph Lemarie, M. E. P., of Kirin (1900-1995)
Bishop John Werner Lesinski, O. P., of Tingchow (1904-1963)
Bishop Giuseppe Maggi, P. I. M. E., of Hanchung (1898-1963)
Bishop Pietro Massa, P. I. M. E., of NJanyang (1895-1978)
Bishop Charles Joseph Van Melckebeke, C. I. C. M., of Ninghsia (1898-1980)
Archbishop Federico Melendro Gutierrez, S. J., of Anking (1889-1978)
Bishop Gaetano Mignani, C. M., of Ki-an (1882-1973)
Vicar Apostolic Paul Leon Montaigne, C. M. of Beijing (1883-1962)
Archbishop Emeritus Louis Morel, C. I. C. M., of Suiyuan (1880-1971)
Bishop Emeritus Francisco Javier Ochoa Ullate, O. A. R., of Kweiteh (1889-1976)
Bishop Cuthbert M. O'Gara, C. P., of Yuanling (1886-1968)
Bishop August Olbert, S. V. D. of Tsingtao (1895-1964)
Bishop John O'Shea, C. M., of Kanchow (1887-1969)/USA
Bishop Joseph Julian Oste, C. I. C. M., of Jehol (1893-1971)
Bishop Emeritus Raffaele Angelo Palazzi, O. F. M., of Hengchow (1886-1961)
Bishop Adolph J. Paschang, M. M., of Kong Moon (1895-1968)/USA
Bishop Ferdinando Fulgenzio Pasini, O. F. M., of Sanyuan (1897-1985)
Bishop Henry Ambrose Pinger, O. F. M.,  of Chowtsun (1897-1988)/USA
Bishop Henri Marie Ernest Desire Pinault, M. E. P., of Chengtu (1904-1987)
Archbishop Gaetano Pollio, P. I. M. E., of Kaifeng (1911-1991)
Bishop William Charles Quinn, C. M., of Yukiang (1905-1960)/USA
Bishop Arturo Quintanilla Manzanares, O. A. R., of Kweiteh (1904-1971)
Papal Nuncio Archbishop Antonio Riberi (1897-1967)
Archbishop Giuseppe Ferruccio Maurizio Rosa, O. F. M., of Hankow (1888-1961)
Bishop Teodoro Schu, S. V. D., of Yenchow (1892-1965)
Bishop Faustino M. Tissot, S. X., of Chengchow (1901-1991)
Bishop Zenon Aramburu Urquiola, S. J., of Wuho (1879-1969)
Bishop Pierre Sylvian Valentin, M. E. P., of Kangtin (1880-1962)
Archbishop Pacifico Giulio Vanni, O. F. M., of Sian (1893-1967)
Bishop Emeritus Juan Bautista Velasco Diaz of Xiamen (1911-1985)
Bishop Andre-Jean Verineux, M. E. P., of Yingkow (1897-1983)+
Bishop Emeritus Jean de Vienne, C. M., of Tientsinn (1877-1957)
Bishop Charles Vogel, P. I. M. E., of Swatow (1878-1958)
Bishop James E. Walsh, M. M., of Kong Moon (1891-1981)/USA +
Bishop Charles Weber, S. V. D., of Ichow (1886-1970)
Statistics on Bishops and Priests Imprisoned as of 2005
87 Catholic Missionaries (58 Priests) Killed by 1949
31 of 70 Monks in 1 Monastery Killed by 1949
350 Foreign Missionaries Jailed (from 2 months to 3 years) by 1954
At least 125 Chinese Missionaries (100 Priests) Killed by 1954
Father Eleutherius Winnance, O. S. B. (1909-2009)
Camillian Missionaries
Celestino Rizzi (d. 1951)
Cistercian Martyrs
Father Alphonsus
Father William Camborieu
Father Chrysostum
Father Aelred Drost
Father Anthony Fan
Father Augustine Faure
Father Stephen Maury
Father Seraphim
Brother Alexius Liu
Brother Aloysius
Brother Bartholomew
Brother Bruno
Brother Clement
Brother Conrad
Brother Damian Hang
Brother Jerome
Brother Mark
Brother John Miu
Brother Eligius Sui
W. Aeden McGrath (1906-2000)
Gabrielle M. Allegra (1907-1976)
Didace Arcand (+ 1952)
Leonide Bruns (+ 1947)
Anthony Zhang Gangyi (d. 1997)
Augustin Holzum (1911-1947)
Benedict Jensen (1889-1946) +
Zhang Jinngye (d. 1997)
Pascual Nadal (1884-1935)
Epiphane Pegoraro (+ 1941)
Dosithee Ruys (+ 1946)
Lorenzo Scarpellini (1913-1972)
Mathias Scholberg (+ 1941)
Wilgiso Van Dick (+ 1941)
Pascal Vidal (+ 1941)


The picture above and the list below it are taken from Edward J. Malatesta,  and others, CHINA: A History of Martyrs, A Future of Faith (National  Jesuit News White  Paper on China, December 1994/January 1995). p. 9.
Eugene Beauce (1878-1962)
Prosper Bernard (1902-1943)
Francis Xavier Cai [Ts'ai] (1907-1997)
Petrus Chang Chin-Shan (1903-1967)
Anthony Wang Che (1912-1953)
Beda Chang [Tsang] Cheng-Min (1905-1951) +
Josephus Hsu Ching-Fang (1914-19??)
Laurentius Ts'Ao Chin-Teh (1893-19??)
Francis Chuimon Chu [Tsu] (1868-1960)
Stephanus Chu Ju-Yue (1901-1966?)
Laurentius Chin Lin-Shen (1915-19??)
John W. Clifford (1917-1984)
Tomas Esteban (1879-1933) +
Camille Graff
Qing Guoliang (b.1926)
John A. Havas (1908-1994)
Vincent Zhu [Chu] Hongsheng
John A. Houle (1914-1997)
Christian Homo (1910-1946) +
Peter T'Ang Kai-Shan (1906-1957)
Aloysius Chu Kuang-Chung (1906-1968)
Thomas Phillips (1904-1968)
Richard Ponsol (1879-1940) +
Xavier Robert (1912-1946) +
Louis Shen (b. 1936)
Stanislaus Shen [Chen] Baishun
Joseph Hu Shih-Chao (1908-19??)
Andres Li Shu-Pei (1913-19??)
Francis Xavier Chu Shu-Teh (1913-1983)
Chrysostomus Chang Szu-Ch'Ien (1910-1961?)
Louis Teteau (1874-1952) +
James Enda Thornton (1910-1993)
Paulus Cheng Wei-Hsien (1903-1970?)
George B. Wong (1918-2001)
Luke Yang Wei Shih (1874-1962)
Zhen Yuntang [Jospeh Chen]
Peter Sun
Maryknoll Fathers
Herbert V. Elliott (1912-1987)
Robert H. Greene (b. 1911)
Mark A. Tennien
Petrus Chang (+ 1948)
Constant Dom (+ 1947)
Joseph Feeraert (+1947)
Antoine Renson (+ 1952)
Joseph Chang Shouyi (+1991)
Henry Ullings (+ 1953)
Joseph Vaehaert (+ 1948)
Antoine DeGrouve, C. P. (1885-1959)
 Peter Yeh (+1952)
Vincent Shih
Joseph Gate (+ 1952)
Vincent F. Lebbe (1877-1940)
Joseph Zeman (+ 1952)
Shoa Amin
Guo Bo Le
Father Zu Baozang
Michael Chang
Wang Chengzhi (b. 1931)
Father Zhang Chunguang
He Dezong
Ye Gong Feng  (b. 1918)
Stephen Liu Difen
Francis Huang Fangji
Ng Ying Fun
Father Lu Genyou [Genjun]
Chu Guangyao
Charles Guo
Father Xie Guolin
Vincent Qin Guoliang
Kong Guocun
Father Liao Haiqing  (b. 1930)
Father Chi Huitian
 Father Li Jianbo di Mancheng
Father Zan Jianzhou
Wei Jingyi
Robert Juigner, C. M.
Girolamo Lazzaroni (d. 1941)
Miao Lehua
Zhang Li
Yang Maqi
Tarcisio Martina, C. P. S.
Paul Muller (1896-1952)
Placidus Pei Ronggui
Xue Qixiu
Wang Ruohan
Joseph Seng
Matthew Su
Shi Wende
Liu Shao-Zhang (b. 1962)
Aloysius Jen-Shen Wong
Miao Shaozeng
Zan Shengrang
Jian Shurang
Father Zhang Sulai
Paul Jiang Sunian
Chu Tai
Zhu Tai
Matthew Teng
Father Hu Tongzian
John Tung
Yan Weiping (1966-1999) +
John Ziang-bai Nien (1922-1959)
Guo Xijan
Zhang Wenlin
Humilis Yang Guang-qi (1912-1957)
Goa Yi Hua (b. 1956)
Father Guo Yibao
Father Feng Yunxiang
Mario Zanardi (d. 1941)
Bruno Zanelli (d. 1941)
Father Ji Zengwei
Father Wang Zeyi
Father Wang Zhenhe
Fatherr Yin Zhengjun
Li Zhixin
Li Zhong'an
3 Sisters of the Diocese of Jehol Killed in March of 1948:
Anne Chang
Teresa Chao
Maria Liu
Sister Mary Joseph Hubrich (1886-1962)
Sister Maria Servata (1902-1967)
Sister Joan Marie
Sister Mary Rosalia
Still in Prison on 1 January 1954:
Mother Alphonsina de Bodt (Belgian)
Mother Dolorosa Cesaro (Spanish)
Mother St. Pia Demoppay (French)
Mother Agnes Gurson (French)
Mother St. Aubert LeBaron (French)
Mother Notre Dame de le Grand Maussier (French)
Mother Robertlebis (French)
Mother Carmen Sanchez (Spanish)
Lay Leaders
Maria Chang
Wang Chengqun
Joseph Chu
Sun Guofu
Maria Kung Chu
Detained at Shandong Reeducation
Father Wang Chengi
Mr. Guo Boa Chen
Johanna Hsaio
Miss Mildred Kao
Mr. Li Lianshu
Mr. Wang Yungang
Press Releases on Arrests
Joseph Kung
Nina Shea
Harry Wu
The Epic History of 20th-Century China
Night Over China
The Inn of the Sixth Happiness
China Cry
The Keys of the Kingdom
Heart of a Priest
New Chinese Martyrs
China on the Cross
Christianity in China
The Vatican and the Chinese People's Republic
Benedictines in China
Prisoners of the Undergorund Church in China
Catholics in China
Pope John Paul II Appeals to Chinese Catholics
Is the Chinese Church Schimatic?
Terror Against the Catholic Church in China
Persecution of Chinese Catholics
The Persecuted Church  in China
The Church in China Today
The Cardinal Kung Foundation
Missionhurst Missionaries
Free the Fathers
Imprisoned Christian Leaders
A Catholic Voice Out of China
Another Bishop Speaks Out of China
Communism's 100 Million Victims
From 40 Million to More than 70 Million Deaths under Mao
Forced Labor Camps in China
Bishops of Chinese Catholics' Patriotic Association
Bishops and Priests Under Commuism
Chinese Catholics & Loyalty to Papacy
Mao Zedong (1949-1976)
Deng Xiaoping (1977-1996)
Jiang Zemin (since 1996)

Copyright 1999-2005
E-mail comments and questions to:
Vincent A. Lapomarda