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In Memory of

---------- First Victims of Communism (Analecta O. S. B. M., 1953)

---------- Martyrology of the Ukrainian Churches (Biblioteka Smoloskypa,

---------- "Soviet Repression of the Ukrainian Catholic Church," U. S.
          Department of State Bulletin, 87: 2120 (Mar. 1987), 47-52

Alagiagian, Peter, My Prisons in Soviet Paradise (trans. by Mary Henez; Harpell’s, 1969)

Alov, A. A., Katolitsizm, Protestantizin, Armianskaia Apostolskaia
         Tserkov v Rossii (Institut Naslediia, 1995)

Ammann, Albert Maria, Storia della Chiesa Russa e dei Paesi Limitorofi (Unione Typografico, 1948)

Andrew, Christopher, and Mitrokhin, Vasili, The Sword and the Shield (Basic Books, 1999)

Barth, Hilarius M., Im Feverofen (Johannes-Verlag, 1978)

Bernstein, Carl, and Marco Politi, His Holiness (Doubleday, 1996)

Bissonnette, Georges, Moscow was my Parish (McGraw-Hill, 1956)

Blet, Pierre, Pius XII and the Second World War (Paulist, 1999)

Bociurkiw, Bohdan R.,  "The Ukrainian Catholic Church in the USSR Under Gorbachev," Problems of Communism, 36/6 (Nov. - Dec. 1990), 1-18

---------- The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the Soviet
          State, 1939-1950 (Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1996)

Bolte, Paul-Emile, Staline et Pie XI (Grand Seminaire, 1944)

Bourdeaux, Michael, Risen Indeed (Darton, Longman & Todd, 1983)

---------- (editor), The Politics of Religion in Russia and the
            New States of Eurasia (M. E. Sharpe, 1995)

Bourgeois, Charles, A Priest in Russia and the Baltic (Clonmore &
             Reynolds, 1953)

Brovkin, Vladimir N., Russia After Lenin (Routledge, 1998)

Carroll, Warren, The Rise and Fall of the Communist Revolution (Christendom College Press, 1995)

----------, 1917: Red Banners, White Mantle (Christendom College Press, 1981)

Casaroli, Agostino, Martyrdom of Patience [Il Martirio della Pazienza]
(Einaudi, 2000)

Chrysostom, John, Church and State in Soviet Russia (Haus der
            Begegnung, 1966)

Ciszek, Walter J. (with Daniel L. Flaherty), With God in Russia (Doubleday,  1964)

Codevilla, Giovanni, Stato e Chiesa nell'Unione Sovietica (Jaca Book, 1972)

----------, Le Comunita Religiose nell'URSS (La Casa di Matriona, 1978)

----------, La Liberta Religiosa nell'Unione Sovietica (La Casa di Matriona, 1985)

----------, Dalla Rivoluzione Bolscevica alla Federazione Russa (Franco Angeli, 1996)

----------, Stato e Chiesa nella Federazione Russa (La Casa di Matriona, 1998)

Conquest, Robert, The Great Terror (Wydawn, 1968)

-----------, Harvest of Sorrow (Oxford University Press, 1986)

Courtois, Stephane, Nicolas Werth, and others, The Black Book of
Communism (trans. Jonathan Murray and Mark Kramer; Harvard, 1999)

Cunningham, James W., A Vanquished Hope (St. Vladimir's, 1981)

Dee, Eugene H. van, Sleeping Dogs and Popsicles (University Press of
           America, 1996)

Domanski, Franciszek, The Great Apostle of Russia (s. n., 1953)

Dunn, Dennis I., The Catholic Church and the Soviet Government, 1939-1949 (Columbia, 1977)

Dushnyck, Walter, Martyrdom in Ukraine (America Press, 1947)

Emhardt, William C., Religion in Soviet Russia (Moorehouse, 1929)

Ecclesisastical History Society, Martyrs and Martyrdom (Blackwell, 1993)

Floridi, Alexis U., Moscow and the Vatican (Ardis, 1986)

Gallagher, Louis J., Edmund A. Walsh, S.J. (Benziger, 1962)

Galter, Albert, The Red Book of the Persecuted Church (Newman Press,

George, Father (psued.), God's Underground (Appleton, 1949)

Grunwald, Constantin de, The Churches and the Soviet Union (trans. by G. J. Robinson-Paskevsky; Macmillan, 1962)

Hartfeld, Hermann, Faith Despite the KGB (Christian Herald, 1980)

d'Herbigny, Michel, Eveques Russes en Exil (Pont. Inst. Orientalium, 1931)

Hill, Kent, The Puzzle of the Soviet Church (Multnomah, 1989)

Hosking, Geoffrey A. (editor), Church and State in Russia and Ukraine (St.  Martin's, 1991)

Husband, William B., "Godless Communists" (Northern Illinois University Press, 2000)

Hrynchyshyn, Myhailo, Our Christian Heritage (Secretariat - Central Jubilee  Committee, 1981)

Hyman, Bruce, "On the Road in Siberia," America, 171, No. 120 (Dec. 31,1994),   18-20

Iosyf, Stefan, Nykolai Charnetskyi (Druk. Holosv. Spasytelia, 1980)

Isaiv, Petro, Persecution of the Ukrainian Catholic Church ("The Way -- Shlakh" Weekly, 1961)

Johnson, Joseph, God's Secret Armies Within the Soviet Empire (Putnam,  1954)

Kaps, Johannes, The Martyrdom of Silesian Priests, 1945-1946 (Kirchliche Hilfsstelle, 1950)

Keleher, Serge, Passion and Resurrection (Stauropegion, 1993)

Khanevich, Vasilii A., Belostokskaia Tragediia ("Tomskii Vestnik", 1993)

Kline, George L., Religious and Anti-Religious Thought in Russia (Chicago U., 1968)

Kolarz, Walter, Religion in the Soviet Union (St. Martin's, 1961)

Korolevsky, Cyril, Metropolitan Andrew (1865-1944) (trans. and rev.
            S. Keleher; Stauropegion, 1993)

Kozina, Vladimir, "Communism as I Know it," The Fatima Crusader, No. 23(Sept.-Oct. 1987)

Leoni, Pietro, "Spia del Vaticano! " (Edizioni Cinque Lune, 1959)

Lesourd, Paul, Entre Rome et Moscou (Lethielleux, 1976)

Lewin, Kurt I., A Journey Through Illusions (Fithian Press, 1994)

Lord, Daniel, Thanks to the Communists (Queen's Work, 1937)

Luxmoore, Jonathan, "The Iron Curtain's Secrets," The Tablet, January 23, 1999, 106-107

----------- The Vatican and the Red Flag (Geoffrey Chapman, 1999)

Luznycky, Gregory, Persecution and Destruction of the Ukrainian Church by the Russian Bolscheviks (Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, 1966)

MacEoin, Gary, The Communist War on Religion (Devin-Adair, 1951)

Mailleux, Paul, Exarch Leonid Feodorov (P. J. Kenedy & Sons, 1964)

Marshall, Richard H. Jr. (editor), Aspects of Religion in the Soviet Union, 1917-1967 (U. of Chicago, 1971)

McCullagh, Francis, The Bolshevik Persecution of Christianity (E. P. Dutton, 1942)

Melychuk, Petro, Vladyka Hryhori Khomyshyn (s. n., 1979)

Nazarko, Irynei, Iosakat Kotsylovskyi (Vasyliian, 1954)

Nowicka, Anatolia, Russia and Catholicism (Sarmatian Review, 1989)

Osipova, Irina, In Your Wounds Hide Me (Memorial, 1996)

----------, Si Il Mondo Vi Odia . . . Martiri Per La Fede Nel Regimine Sovietico (La Casa di Matriona, 1997)

Parsons, Howard L., Christianity Today in the USSR (International, 1987)

Pascual, Pierce, The Religion of the Russian People (St. Vladimir's, 1976)

Patmont, Louis R., The Mystery of Iniquity (Graeter Publishing Concern,  1933)

Pekar, Atanasii V., The History of the Church in Carpathian Rus' (trans. Marta Skorupsky; Columbia U. Press, 1992)

Pelikan, Jaroslav J., Confessor Between East and West (W. B. Eerdmans, 1989)

Petylycky, Steve, "True Holocaust Story Deserves to be Heard," The TorontoStar,Monday, December 29, 1997

Pierce, Robert, Religion in Russia (Harper, 1946)

Piotrowski, Tadeusz, Vengeance of the Swallows (McFarland, 1994)

Pipes, Richard, The Unknown Lenin (Yale, 1996)

Pius XI, Pope, Atheistic Communism (Encyclical of 19 March 1937)

Poggi, Vincenzo, Per La Storia del Pontificio Istituto Orientale (Pontificio Istituto Orientale, 2000)

Polskii, Mikhail, The New Martyrs of Russia (Monastery Press, 1972)

Pospielovsky, Dimitry, The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime (St. Vladimir's Semnary, 1984)

Ramet, Sabrina P. (editor), Catholicism and Politics in Communist
            Societies (Duke U. Press, 1990)

Rance, Didier, Catholiques d'Ukraine (2nd ed.; Aide a l'Eglise en detresse, 1992)

Sarmiento, J. Esteban, Un Sacerdote en la URSS y Otros Viajes (Idea Activa, 1986)

Schudlo, Michael, Ukrainian Catholics (Redeemer's Voice, 1951)

Schwark, Bruno, Ihr Name lebt (A. Fromm, 1958)

Slipyi, Iosyf, The Church of the Martyrs (Internationaler Informationsdienst, 1981)

Solanes, Felipe, Apostol a los 18 anos (Ediciones Paulinas, 1959)

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I., The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956 (Westview Press, 1974)

Spinka, Matthew, The Church in Soviet Russia (Oxford U. Press, 1951)

Stehle, Hansjakob, Eastern Politics of the Vatican, 1917-1979 (trans. by Sandra Smith; Ohio, 1981)

Struk, Danilo Huar (editor), Encyclopedia of Ukraine (5 volumes; U. of
            Toronto, 1993)

Struve, N. A., Christians in Contemporary Russia(Scribner, 1967)

Sudaplatov, Pavel, Special Tasks (Little, Brown, 1994)

Szarnicki, Zygmunt V., Polish Martyrs and Others Beatified (Pittsburgh, PA: By the Author, 2003)

Szczesniak, Boleslaw B. (editor), The Russian Revolution and Religion
            (U. of Notre Dame, 1959)

Tang, Dominic, How Inscrutable His Ways! (3rd edition; Condor, 1994)

Terelia, Iosyp, Witness to Apparations and Persecution in the USSR (Faith, 1991)

Thurston, Robert W., Life and Terror in Stalin's Russia (Yale, 1996)

Tindal-Robertson, Timothy, Fatima, Russia & Pope John Paul II (Augustine, 1992)

Tremblay, Emilien, The Ukrainian Paradox (Icon Press, 1982)

Tretjakewitsch, Leon, Bishop Michel d'Herbigny S.J. and Russia (Augustinus, 1990)

Volkogonov, Dmitri A., Stalin (Grove Weidenfelt, 1991)

----------,  Autopsy for an Empire (Free Press, 1998)

Wenger, Antoine, Catholiques en Russie d'apres les Archives du KGB 1920- 1960 (Desclee de Brouwer, 1996)

----------, Rome et Moscu (Desclee de Brower, 1987)

Werth, Joseph, The Church and the Russian-Germans in the Siberian
            Homeland Today (North Dakota State U., 1996)

[White Book on the Religious Persecution in Ukraine], First Victims of
           Communism (Analecta O. S. B. M., 1953)

Wojnar, Meletius M., "Ukrainian (Rutenian) Rite," New Catholic
              Encyclopedia,  14 (McGraw-Hill, 1967), 372-375

Zatko, James J., Descent Into Darkness (Notre Dame, 1965)

Zugger, Christopher, The Forgotten (Syracuse University, 2001)
--------  Finding a Hidden Church (Eastern Christian Publications, 2009)

--------"Catholics in the Gulag," Religion, Human Rights, and   the Gulag (ed. John Michalczyk and Naomi Blumberg; Etoile International, 2007)


Carloni, Maria Teresa, Una Missione per la Chiesa Persequitata (EMI, 1990)

Daim, Wilfried, The Vatican and Eastern Europe (Ungar, 1970)

Del Rio, Domenico, San Pietro e il Cremlino (Piemme, 1991)

Diocese of Urbania, Luci Nelle Tenbre (Commissione Diocesana per la Chiesa di Silenzio, 1980)

Dzwonkowski, Roman, Sentenced as Vatican Spies (2 volumes; Apostolicum 1998)

Gussoni, Lino, and Brunello, Aristide, The Silent Church (Veritas, 1954)

Hedberg, Augustin, Faith Under Fire and the Revolutions in Eastern Europe (Sturges, 1992)

International Slavic Conference, Marxism and Religion in Eastem Europe (D. Reidel, 1975)

Luxmoore, Jonathan,The Vatican and the Red Flag (Geoffrey Chapman,

Michel, Patrick, Politics and Religion in Eastern Europe (Polity, 1991)

Moll, Helmut (coordinator), German Catholic Martyrs of the Twentieth
            Century (German Conference of Bishops, 1999)

Moore, Brian, The Colour of Blood (Cape, 1987)

Nalls, Donald E.,, Catholics, Eastern Europeans and the Cold War, 1950-1954 (M. A., U. of VA, 1985)

O'Grady, Desmond, The Turned Card (Gracewing, 1995)

Pax Christi, Catholics in Eastern Europe (Pax Christi Netherlands, 1989)

Pekar, Athanasius B., History of the Church in Carpathian Rus' (trans. Martha Skorupsky; Columbia University, 1992)

Pius XII, Pope, Encyclical on Churches of Eastern Europe (15 December 1952)

Ramet, Sabrina P., Cross and Commissar (Indiana U., 1987)

Slivka, John, The History of the Greek Rite Catholics in Pannonia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Podkarpatska Rus (Slivka, 1974)

Sorokowski, Andrew, Ukrainian Catholics and Orthodox in Poland and
         Czechoslovakia (Ukrainian Studies Fund, 1988)

Szalay, Jeromos, Verites sur l'Europe Centrale (s. n., 1955)

Tondi, Alighiero, La Chiesa del Silenzio (Edizione di Cukltural Sociale, 1954)

Weigel, George, The Final Revolution (Oxford, 1992)


Bashati,  Myfit Q., "An Eyewitness Account of the Last Days of Fr. Daniel Dajani, S. J.," Albanian   Catholic Bulletin, 15 (1994), 32 ff.

Gardin, Giacomo, Banishing God in Albania (Ignatius, 1988)

----------  "Father Gjon Karma's Slow Road to Martyrdom," Albanian Catholic Bulletin, 11 (1990),

Rance, Didier, Ils ont voulu tuer Dieu: Albanie: la persecution contre l'Egliste catholique,
            1944-1991 (Paris: Aide a l'Eglise detresse, 1996)

Sinishta, Gjon, The Fulfilled Promise (Sinishta, 1976)


Cavalli, Fiorello, "Persecuzione Religiosa Nella Repubblica Popolare
            Bulgaria," La Civilta Cattolica, 104:1 (1953), 138-152

Grandhomme, Jean-Noel, and Rance, Didier, Catholiques de Bulgarie (Aid to the Church in Need, 2004)

Slavonic and East European Studies, Towards a New Community (U. of


Carloni, Maria Teresa, Il Cardinale Scomodo (Bramante, 1972)

Chalupa, V., Situation of the Catholic Church in Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak Foreign Institute in Exile, 1959)

Hlinka, Anton, Sila Slabych a Slabost Silynch (Logos, 1989)

Korbel, Josef, The Communist Subversion of Czechoslovakia (Princeton
            U. 1959)

Korec, Jan C., La Notte dei Barbari (trans. by Michele Dusik; Casale
           Monferrato, 1993)

Mikus, Joseph A., Three Slovak Bishops (Slovak Catholic Federation, 1953)

Nemec, Frantisek, Episcopal and Vatican Reaction to the Persecution of the Catholic Church in Czechoslovakia (Catholic University of America, 1953)

---------- The Soviet Seizure of Subcarpathian Ruthenia (Hyperion, 1955)

---------- Church and State in Czechoslovakia (Vantage, 1955)

---------- "Stepan Cardinal Trochta," Catholic Historical Review, 74: 4
            (October 1978)

Pavlik, Jan, On the Way to Jesus! (Refugium, 1998)

Petek, John, Archbishop Joseph Beran (University of Notre Dame, 1964)

Ripka, Hubert, Le Coup de Prague (Plon, 1949)

Society of Jesus, Catalogus Viceprovinciae Slovakiae 1944

Taborsky, Edward J., Communism in Czechoslovakia (Princeton U., 1961)

Vojtassak, Jan, The Trial of the Three Slovak Bishops (Orbis, 1951)

Wheaton, Bernard, and Zdenek Kavan, The Velvet Revolution (Westview1992)

Zela, Stanislav, The Trial of Vatican Agents in Czechoslovakia (Orbis, 1951)

Zubek, Theodoric J., "Slovak Bishops -- Martyrs for Christ," The Jurist
          (October 1955)

----------  The Church in Silence in Slovakia (J. J. Lach, 1956)


Solberg, Richard W., God and Caesar in East Germany (Macmillan, 1961)


Grulich, Rudolf, "Neue Dokumente uber Erzbischof Eduard Profittlich,"
         Acta Baltica, 28 (1990), 209-240

Klinke, Lambert, Erzbischof Eduard Profittlich und die Katholische Kirche in  Estland, 1930-1942 (Giessen, 1999)

Salo, Vello, "The Catholic Church in Estonia, 1918-2001," The Catholic Historical Review, lxxxviii, No. 2 (April, 2002), 281-292

Voobus, Arthur, The Martyrs of Estonia (Etse, 1984)


Fehervary, Istvan, The Long Road to Revolution (Pro Libertate, 1989)

Havasy, Gyula, Martyrs of the Faith (Havasy, 1990)

Mindszenty, Josef, Memoirs (Macmillan, 1974)

Pius XII, Pope, Luctuosissimi Eventus (Encyclical on the Church in Hungary)October 28, 1956

Vecsey, Josef, Mindszenty the Man (Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation, 1972)


---------- The Catholic Church of Latvia Under the Bolshevik Torture
            (E. Olofssons, 1950)

Billmanis, Alfteds, The Church in Latvia (Drauga, 1945)

Rancans, Jazeps, Biskaps Jazeps Rancans (Astras, 1977)

Vaivods, Julijans, Isas Macibas (Rigas Metroppolijas Kurijas, 1993)


Bourdeaux, Michael, Land of the Crosses (Augustin, 1979)

"Chretiens de I'Est" (editors), Catholics in Soviet-Occupied Lithuania (trans. by Vita Matusaitis and Casimir Pugevicius; Aid to the Church in Need, 1981)

Catalogus Viceprov. Lithuaniae Societatis Iesu et Missionis Indep. Lettoniae  et Estoniae Dispersae, Ineunte anno 1969

Gaida, Pranas,  Undying Mortal (trans. by A. Jurgelaitis; Lights of
                 Homeland, 1997)

Krigtanavicius, Bronius, Lietuvos Jezuita (Immaculata, 1972)

Pugevicius, Casimir (trans.), Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania
(volumes 1 to 79; Brooklyn: Lithuanian Catholic Religious Aid, 1972-1988)

Sadunaite, Nijole, A Radiance in the Gulag (trans. by Casmir Pugevicius and Marian Skabeikis; Trinity Communications, 1987)

Suziedelis, Simas (editor), Encyclopedia Lituanica (J. Kapocius, 1970-74)

Suziedelis, Sauklius, The Sword and the Cross (Our Sunday Visitor, 1988)

Vardys, Vytea S., The Catholic Church, Dissent and Nationality in
         Soviet Lithuania (East European Quarterly, 1978)


---------- The Unplanned Society (Columbia U., 1991)

Gross, Jan Tomasz, Revolution from Abroad (Princeton University, 1988)

Helsztynski, Stanislaw, Ks. Ignacy Skorupka (Drukarnia "Rola" J. Buriana,

Kaps, John, The Martyrdom of Silesian Priests 1945-1946 (Kirchliche
            Hilfsstelle, 1950)

Michnik, Adam, The Church and the Left (U. of Chicago, 1993)

--------- "The Church and the Martyr's Stake in Poland," New Perspectives Quarterly, 10: 3 (Summer 1993), 32-37

Piotrowski, Tadeusz, Vengeance of the Swallows (McFarland & Co., 1995)

Sikorska, Guzyna, Jerzy Popieluszko (Eerdmans, 1985)

Zdaniewicz, Witold, Kosciol Katolicki w Polsce (Pallottinum 1989)

Weigel, George, Witness to Hope (Cliff Street Books, 1999)


Anania, Valeriu, Pro Memoria (Editura Institutului Biblic, 1992)

Catalogus Viceprovincia Romaniae Anni 1939

Ciubota, Viorel, Vicariatul National Roman din Carei (Museului Satmarean,  1997)

Corley, Felix, In the Eye of the Romanian Storm (F. H. Revell, 1990)

Domokos, Pal Peter, Renduletlenul (Eotvos Kiado, 1990)

Fischer-Galati, Stephen, Twentieth Century Rumania (Columbia U., 1970)

Gherman, Pierre, L'Ame Roumaine Ecartelee (Les Editions du Cedre, 1955)

Mircea, Alejandro, Persecucion Comunista de la Religioni en Rumania
             (Ediciones "Carpati", 1954)

Netzhammer, Raymond, Bischof in Rumanien  (Sudostdeutsches Kulturwerk,

Orthodox Archdiocese of Cluj, Witnesses Behind Bars (Editura Ramuda,  1996)

Parmelee, Jennifer, "Pope Names 12 Bishops in Move Towards Romania," The Washington Post, March 15, 1990

Ploscaru, Ioan, Lanturi si Teroare (Editura Signata, 1993)

Prundus, Silvestru A., and Clemente  Plaianu, Catholicism si Orthodoxie Romaneassa (Casa de Editura Viata Crestina, 1994)

Rance, Didier, Courage et Fidelite  e L'Eglise  Greco-Catholique Unie  (Aid to the Church in Need, 2004)

Szalay, Jeromos, Vertanu Puspok, Vertanu Nepe (Mission Catholique
Hongroise, 1953)

Taft, Robert, "Romania's Bad Memories," The Tablet, November 28, 1998, 1566-1567

Wurmbrand, In God's Underground (Hodder & Stoughton, 1968)

Landercy, M., Le Cardinal Stepinac (Apostolat: des Editions, 1981)

Lourovich, Giovanni E., Pietro Doimo Muzani Archivescovo di Zadar
            (S. Lucia, 1978)

Maclean, Fitzroy, The Heretic (Harper, 1957)

Mattei, Gianpaolo, Il Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac (L'Osservatore Romano, 1999)

Omrcanin, Ivo, Martyrologe Crote (Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1962)

Pattee, Richard, The Case of Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac (Bruce, 1953)

The Great Cardinals of the Soviet Empire:
Josef Cardinal Beran of Prague (1888-1969)
Jozsef Cardinal Mindszenty of Esztergom (1892-1975)
Josef Cardinal Slipyj of Lviv (1892-1984)
Blessed Alojzije Cardinal Stepinac of Zagreb (1898-1960)
Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski of Warsaw & Gniezno (1901-1981)
The Catholic Martyrs of Russia
Roman Catholic Martyr Bishops
Royal Martyrs of Russia
Orthodox Martyrs
Of more than 900 Catholic priests in 1920,  there were about 300 in 1930.
140 Roman Catholic Priests Shot in a Year (1937-1938)
At Sandormoch in 1997 the remains of 1 bishop and 40 priests found.
The Blessed
 Blessed  Nykyta Budka, Auxiliary Bishop of Lviv (1877-1949) +
Blessed Nicholas Charnestsky, Apostolic Visitor of Volyn (1884-1959) +
Blessed Leonid Feodorov, Exarch of the Russian Byzantine Rite (1879-1935) +
Blessed Gregory Khomyshyn, Bishop of Stanislav (1867-1947) +
Blessed  Josaphat Kotsylovsky, Bishop of Peremyshl (1876-1947) +
Blessed Gregory Lakota, Auxiliary Bishop of Peremyshl (1883-1950) +
Blessed Simeon Lukach, Auxiliary Bishop of Stanislav (1893-1964) +
Blessed Teodor G. Romzha, Bishop of Mukachiv-Uzhgorod (1911- 1947) +
Blessed Kliment Sheptytsky, Exarch of Russia & Siberia  (1869-1951) +
Blessed John Sleziuk, Auxiliary Bishop of Stanislav (1896-1973) +
Blessed Vasyl Velychkovsky, Archbishop of IvanoFrankivsk (1903-1973) +
 Blessed Peter Verhun, Apostolic Visitor to Ukrainians  (1890-1957) +
The Others
The Vicar General Constantine Budkiewicz of Mohilev (1867-1923) +
Basilian Bishop Irynej Bilyk of Ivano Frankivsk (b. 1950)
Bishop Alexander Chira of the Carpatho-Ukrainians (1897-1983)
Archbishop Jan B.Cieplak of Mohilev (1857-1926)
Basilian Bishop Emeritus Sofron Dmyterko of Ivan Frankivsk (b. 1917)
Bishop Alexander Frison of Odessa (1875-1937) +
Bishop Josyf Holovacz of Uzhorod [Mukacheve] (b. 1924)
Lubomyr Cardinal Husar of Lviv (b. 1933)
Marian Cardinal Jaworski of Lviv (b. 1926)
Bishop Philemon Kurchaba of Drohobych (b. 1913)
Auxiliary Bishop John Latysevskyj of Stanislav (1879-1959) +
Cardinal Ivan Myroslav Lubachivsky of Lviv (1914-2000)
Bishop Ivan Marghitych of Uzhorod [Mukacheve] (1921)
Assumptionist Bishop Pius Eugene Neveu (1877-1946)
Janis Cardinal Pujats of Riga (b. 1930)
Apostolic Administrator Bartholomew Remov of Moscow (d. 1935) +
Archbishop Edward van der Ropp of Mohilev (1851-1939) +
Bishop Mykhajlo Sabricha of Lviv
Bishop Ivan Semedi of Uzhorod [Mukacheve] (b. 1921)
Metropolitan Andrew Sheptytsky of Lviv (1865-1944)
Josef Cardinal Slipyj of Lviv (1892-1984)
Bishop Boleslavs Sloskans of Minsk-Mohilev (1893-1981)
Redemptorist Archbishop Volodymyr Sterniuk of Lviv (1907-1997)
Kazimierz Cardinal Swiatek of Minsk-Mohilev (b. 1914)
Bishop Pavlo Vasylyk of Kolomyih-Chernivtsi (b. 1926)
Bishop Julian Woronowsky of Lviv
Blessed Andrew Ishchak (1887-1941) +
Blessed Mykola Konrad (1876-1941) +
Blessed Omeljan Kovch (1884-1944) +
Blessed Roman Lysko (1914-1949) +
Blessed Nicholas Tsehelsky (1896-1951) +
Blessed Oleksa Zarytsky (1912-1963) +
Blessed Severian Baranyk (1889-1941) +
Blessed Vitaliy Bayrak (1907-1946) +
Blessed Yakym Senkiusky (1896-1941) +
Blessed Nicholas Charnestsky, Apostolic Visitor of Volyn (1884-1959) +
Blessed Zynovii Kovalyk (1903-1941) +
Blessed Ivan Ziatyk (1899-1952) +
Sisters of St. Joseph
Blessed Olympia Bida (1903-1952) +
Blessed Laurentina Herasymiv (1911-1952) +
Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate
Blessed Tarsykia Matskiv (1919-1944) +
Catholic Sisters Under European Communism
Blessed Volodymyr Pryima (1906-1941) +
Other Priests:
Epifany Akulov (d. 1937)
Potapyev Emilianov
Ladislas Issajewicz
Sergei Karpinski
Felix Lubycsynsky (d. 1931)
Anthony Racewicz
John Wasilewski
Aleksei Zerchaninov
Pietro Alagiagian (1894-1981)
Walter J. Ciszek (1904-1984)
Albinus Dumbljauskas (1925-1991)
Michel d'Herbigny (1880-1957)
Pietro Leoni (1909-1995)
Jerzy Moskwa (1910-1941)
Victor Novikov (1905-1979)
Heinrich Ostermann (1912-1973)
Rafael Samper (1918-1949)
Wlodimir Ledochowski (1866-1942)
Ivan Ziatek
Joseph de Vocht
Ukrainian Priests:
Executed After World War II
Roman Esip
Omelian Gorchinsky +
Vasyl Kavacin
Other Nuns
Kamilla Krushelnystka (Nun Executed in 1937 at Sandormosch)
Mother Catherine Abrikosova of Moscow's Dominican Convent (d. 1936)
Anna Brilliantova (d. 1937)
Sister Judith Fenyvesi
Ekaterina Gotocheva
Venedykta Kaknykevych
Victoria Lvovnova
Maria Shved (d. 1982) +
Mother Monika Teordorovych-Polianska (d. 1951)
Orthodox Priest:
Alexander Men (1935-1990)
Orientales Ecclesias (15 December 1952)
Twentieth Century Martyrs of Eastern Europe
Bishop Francis Gjini, O. F. M. (d. 1948) +
Mikel Cardinal Koliqi of Shkodre (1902-1997)
Archbishop Nicola Vincenzo Prennushi, O. F. M., of Durres (1885-1952) +
Bishop Bernadino Shlaku, O. F. M., of Pult (1875-1956) +
Archbishop Gaspar Thaci (d. 1945) +
 Bishop George Volaj of Sappa (1904-1948) +
Jak Bushati
Daniel D. Dajani, S. J. (1906-1946)
Giovanni Fausti, S. J.  (1899-1946)
Giacomo (Jak) Gardin, S. J.  (b. 1905)
Nikoll Gazulli
Anton Harapj, O. F. M.(d. 1945) +
Gjon Karma, S. J. (1896-1975)
Stephen Kurti
Anton Luli, S. J.  (b. 1910)
Lek Luli, O. F. M. (d. 1945) +
Peter Meskalla
Ciprian Nika, O. F. M. (d. 1948) +
Gjon Pantalija, S. J. (1887-1947) +
Ndoc (Antonio) Saraci, S. J. (1875-1947)
Zef Saraci, S. J. (1884-1954)
John Shallaku, O. F. M. (d. 1945) +
Lazarus Shantoja (d. 1945) +
Andrew Zadeja (d. 1945) +
Gjon Pantalija, S. J. (1887-1947) +
Brother Vata, S. J.
Martyred Women
Maria Shalaku
Elena Shllaku
Bianca Krosaj
Blessed Vincent Eugene Bossilkov of Nicopolis (1900-1952)
Blessed Pavel Djidjov (1919-1952)
Blessed Josaphat Chichkov (1884-1952)
Blessed Kamen Vitchev Jonkov (1893-1952)
Fortunato Bakalski (d. 1952)
Damian Ghiulov (15 years in prison)
Flawian Mankin (d. 1944)
Franz Nonov (9 years in prison)
Robert Prustov (15 years in prison)
Borislav Ivantchev [Josef Semmler], S. J. (1933-1993)

Blessed Martyrs
Auxiliary Bishop Basil Hopko of Prjashen (1904-1976) +
Zdenka, nee Cecilia Schelingova  (1916-1955), of the Sisters of Charity of Holy Cross
Josef Cardinal Beran of Prague (1888-1969)
Stepan Cardinal Trochta, S. D. B., of Litomerice (1905-1974)
Bishop Michal Buzalka of Cone (1885-1961)
Auxiliary Bishop Peter Dubovsky, S. J., of Banksa Bystra (b. 1921)
Blessed Bishop Paul P. Gojdich, O. S. B. M., of Prjashen (1888-1960)
Auxiliary Bishop Pavel Hnilica, S. J., of Rome  (b. 1921)
Titular Bishop Dominik Kalata, S. J., of Semta (b. 1925)
Jan Cardinal Korec, S. J., of Nitra (b. 1924)
Auxiliary Bishop Vaclav Maly of Prague (b. 1950)
Bishop Maurice Picha of Hradec-Kralove (1869-1956)
 Auxiliary Bishop Stanislav Zela of Olomouc (1893-1969)
Frantisek Cardinal Tomasek of Olomouc (1899-1992)
Miloslav Cardinal Vlk of Prague (b. 1932)
Bishop Jan Vojtassak of Szepes (1877-1965)
Blessed Metod Dominik Trcka, C. SS. R. (1886-1959)
Jan Barta, O. F. M.
         Frantisek Lizna
Oto Madr
Rudolph Smahel
Antonin Zgarbik, S. J. (1913-1965)
Josef Zverina
Sister Zdenka Schelingova (1916-1955) +
East Germany
Lorenz Cardinal Jaeger of Paderborn (1892-1975)
Bishop Petrus Legge of Meissen (1882-1951)
Conrad Cardinal von Preysing of Berlin (1880-1950)
Robert Frater (1915-1987)
Josef Menzel (b. 1916)
Josef Muldner (1911-1984)
Wilhelm Rueter (1911-1987)
Archbishop Eduard Profittlich of Estonia (1890-1942) +
Kazimierz Kanski (1889-1971)
Stasys Rimkevicius (1904-1955) +
Henry Werling (1879-1961)
Lucjan Ruszala (1908-1945)
 Blessed BishopVilmos Apor of Gyor (1892-1945)
Archbishop Jozsef Grosz of Kalocsa (1887-1961)
Bishop Endre Hamvas of Szeged (1890-1970)
Laszlo Cardinal Lekai of Esztergom (1910-1976)
Jozsef Cardinal Mindszenty of Esztergom (1892-1975)
Bishop Nicholas Szarvas (1890-1965)
Blessed Auxiliary Bishop Zoltan Ludovico Measzlenyi of Esztergom (1892-1951)
Titular Bishop Istvan Zadravecz, O.F. M., of Domeziopoli (1884-1965)
Attila Mikloshazy (b. 1931)
Benjamin Jakab (1903-1950)
Ferenc Kajdi (1884-1945)
Antal Laskay (1909-1945)
Jozef Vid (1898-1952)
Michael Fekete (1907-1973)
Other Priests
Szalere Kiss
Gyorgy Kolley
Imre Lekai
Ferenz Vezer
The Catholic Church in Kazakhstan
Auxiliary Bishop Kazimirs Dulbinskis of Riga (1906-1991)
Janis Cardinal Pujats of Riga (b. 1930)
Bishop Jazeps Rancans of Riga (1886-1969)
Archbishop Antonijs Springovics of Riga (1876-1958)
Bishop Anthony Urbss of Leipaja (1879-1965)
Julijans Cardinal Vaivods of Riga (1895-1990)
The Martyrs of Lithuania
The Hill of Crosses
Victims of Communism
Bishop Vincentas Borisevicius of Telsiai (1887-1947) +
Bishop Vincentas Brizgys of Kaunas (1903-1992)
Archbishop Teofilius Matulionis of Kaisiadorys (1873-1962) +
Bishop Petras Mazelis of Telsiai (1894-1966)
Bishop Kasimir Paltarokas of Panevezys (1875-1958)
Bishop Pranciskus Ramanauskas of Telsiai (1893-1959)
Apostolic Administrator Mecislovas Reinys of Vilna (1884-1953) +
Archbishop Juozapas Skvireckas of Kaunas (1873-1959)
Vincentas Cardinal Sladkevicius, M. I. C., of  Kaunas (1920-2000)
Bishop Justinas Staugaitis of Telsiai (1866-1943)
Julijonas Steponavicius of Vilnius (1911-1991)
Bishop Bernardas Suziedelis of Kaisiadorys (1888-1967) +
Archbishop Sigitas Tamkevicius, S. J., of Kaunas (b. 1938)
Stanislovas Baltrimas (1889-1941) +
Prosperas Bubnys (d. 1941) +
Vladas Didzioks (1912-1941) +
Canon Kemesis +
Bronius Laurinavicius (d. 1981) +
Alfonsas Lipnickas-Lipniunas (1905-1945)
Leonas Mazeika (d. 1981)
Leonas Sapoka (d. 1980) +
Juozas Seskevicius (b. 1914)
Alfonsas Svarinskas (b. 1925)
Juozas Zdebskis (1928-1986)
Balys Beionoravicius
Kazys Ciplys
Petras Liepa
Petras Margevicius
Viktoras Petkus
Antanas Reuba
Nijole Sadunaite (b. 1938)
Antanas Terleckas
Anatanas Zakevicius
Jesuit Fathers
Benediktas Andruska (1884-1951) +
Antanas Bieliunas (b. 1904) +
Antanas Dabrowski (b. 1896) +
Gerardus Dunda (1914-1996)
Karolis Garuckas (1908-1879)
Jonas Kastytis Matulionis (b. 1931)
Joannes Peeperkorn (1898-1947) +
Jazeps Pudans (1903-1942) +
Antanas Seskevicius (b. 1914)
Jurgis Smilgevivius (1902-1979)
Jesuit Brothers
Justin Adomaidis (b. 1901) +
Augustus Baltuonis (b. 1901) +
Juozas Jonkus (b. 1902) +
Augustyn Cardinal Hlond, S. D. B., of Gniezno & Posen (1881-1948)
Adam Cardinal Sapieha of Krakow (1867-1951)
Ignacy Skorupka (1893-1920) & Heroic Anti-Bolshevik Soldiers
Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski of Warsaw & Gniezno (1901-1981)
Archbishop Romuald Jalbrzykowski of Wilno (1876 -1955)
Auxiliary Bishop Valentine Dymek of Poznan
Bishiop Stanislaw Okoniewski of Chelmno-Pelplin
Bishop Karol Mieczyslaw Radonski of Wloclawek
Wladyslaw Bukowinski (1904-1974)
Jerzy Popieluszko (1947-1984)
Boleslas Stefanski
Tadeusz Chabrowski (1909-1941)
Alfons Czyzewski (1897-1953)
Kajetan Gorski (1879-1942)
Antoni Grzybowski (1904-1943)
Jan Haniewski (1873-1942)
Jakub Jagusz (1872-1942)
Kazimierz Konopka (1879-1941)
Mariusz Skibniewski (1881-1939)
Stanislaw Wnek (1859-1944)
Waclow Zaborowski (1904-1958)
Twelve Bishops Died as Martyrs in Prison
400 Priests Perished in Persecutions
At Least 2000 Churches Confiscated
The Martyred Bishops of Romania
Titular Bishop Vasile Aftenie of Ulpiana (1899-1950) +
Bishop Ioan Balan of Lugoj (1880-1959) +
Archbishop Adalbert Boros of Ressiana (b. 1908)
Archbishop Alexander Cisar of Bucharest (1880-1954)
Iuliu Cardinal Hossu of Cluj-Gherla (1885-1970)
Bishop Ion Chertes (b. 1912)
Bishop Tit Liviu Chinezu (d. 1955) +
Bishop Antonio Durcovici of Iasi (1888-1951)
Bishop Valeriu Traian Frentiu of Gran Varadino (1875-1946) +
Bishop Antal Jakob of Alba Julia
Bishop Iuliu Hirtea
Bishop Aron Marton of Alba Julia (1896-1980)
Archbishop Lucian Muresan of Alba Julia & Fargas (b. 1931)
Bishop Raymond Netzhammer, O. S. B., of Bucharest (1862-1945)
Archbishop Alexandru Nicolescu of Blaj (d. 1946)
Archbishop Ion Ploscaru of Lugoj (1912-1998)
Bishop Alexandru Rusu of Mamamures (1884-1965) +
Archbishop Joseph Schubert of Bucharest (1890-1969)
Bishop Ion Suciu of Moglena (1907-1948) +
Alexandru Cardinal Todea of Alba Julia & Fagaras (1912-2002)
Father Joseph Bal
Vicar Louis Boga
Father Ion Escy
Canon Ioan Folea
Father Rafael Friedrich
Monsignor Vladimir Ghika (1873-1954)
Vicar Marcu Glasser
Father Michael Godo
Canon Iuliu Hirtea
Vicar Tertullian Langa of Romania
Vicar Victor Madavei
Canon Dimitru Manu
Canon Ion Moldovan
Canon Dumitru Neda
Father Onofreiu
Father Iosip Pop
Canon Nicholae Pop
Canon Victor Pop
Father Alexandru Ratiu
Father Vasile Teglasiu
Father Vasile
Anton Bisoc
Father Herciu
Cornel Chira (1904-1953)
Emil Puni (b. 1916)
Vendelin Javorka (1882-1966)
Other Christians
Orthodox Priest Roman Braga
Orthodox Bishop Nicolae Colan of Cluj
Greek Catholic Layman Iuliu Maniu
Philosopher Ion Miclea
Orthodox Metropolitan Irineu Mihalcescu
Professor Eugen Popa
Orthodox Bishop Nicholas Popovici (d. 1958)
Professor Septimus Todoran
Pastor Richard Wurmbrand (b. 1909)
The Roman Catholic Church in Tajikistan
The Ukrainian Greek Roman Catholic Church
Martyrs (1935 to 1973) Beatified by Pope John Paul II in Ukraine:
Boiled, Crucified, Incinerated, Poisoned, Tortured or Walled In for the Faith
L'Osservatore Romano's List of Ukrainian Martyrs
130 Ukrainian Catholics Killed by Stalinists
The Church of the Martyrs
The Ukrainian Catholic Church
Beatifications by Pope John Paul II in Ukraine
Beatification of Thirty Ukrainian
Russian Orthodox Church
Ukrainian Orthodox Churches
Persecuted Ukrainian Bishops
Deported Ukrainian Roman Catholic Priests
High Cost of the Fidelity of Ukrainian Catholics
Blessed Alojzije Cardinal Stepinac of Zagreb (1898-1960)
"This Croatian Cardinal is the most important
priest in the Catholic Church," said Pope Pius XII.
Franciscan Bishop Petar Cule of Mostar (1895-1985)
Franjo Cardinal Kuharic of Zagreb (b. 1919)
Archbishop Pietro Doimo Munzani of Zadar (1890-1951)
Archbishop Jozef Pogacnik of Ljubljana (1902-1980)
Vinko Cardinal Puljic of Vrhbosna (b. 1945)
Archbishop Gregorij Rozman of Ljubljana (1883-1959)
Bishop Ivan Jozef Tomazic of Maribor (1876-1949)
Archbishop Anton Vovk of Ljubljana (1900-1963)
Five Times More Priest Killed Than Under Nazis in Slovenia
Priests Murdered by Communists in Slovenia
600 Priests Killed Under the Communists in Yugoslavia
According to a Pastoral Letter of Yugoslav Bishops in
1945, twenty-eight Franciscans were killed
without a trial in one monastery
Izidor Bistrovic (1949-1969)
Franjo Bortas (1903-1907)
Jose Bric (1907-1945)
Lambert Erlich (1878-1942)
Martin Meglik 1871-1945)
Josip Muller (1893-1945)
Petar Perica (1881-1944)
Lojze Grozde (1923-1943)
Soviet Union
Harvest of Despair
A Light in the Darkness
Katyn Forest Massacre
The Prisoner
Guilty of Treason
Home at Last
Question 7
Fr. Jerzy Popieluszko
Pope John Paul II
Lithuania, Land of Martyrs
Interview with Archbishop of Kaunas
The Persecution of the Catholic Church in Albania
Events in Hungary

The Roman Catholic Russian Church
The Catholic Church of St. Louis of France in Moscow
Communism's 100 Million Victims
Stalin Himself Responsible for at least 40 Million Deaths
Crucifixion of Christians by Communists
Eastern Christianity
Survivors of Communist Persecutions
The Russian Major Who Saved the Life of a Future Pope
The Stalinist Persecution of Poland
An Orthodox View of theVatican and Russia
The Russian Orthodox Church
Churches of Ukraine
Ukrainian Catholic Churches
Execution of Ukrainian Priests
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
Catholic Martyrs of Russia
The Martyrs of Poland
The Baltic Countries
Communist Execution of Croation People
Catholicism and Orthodoxy in Russia
History of Catholicism in Russia
The Catholic Church in Russia
Soviet Execution of Russian Clergy
List of Catholic Dioceses in Ukraine
List of Catholic Dioceses in Lithuania
Vladimir I. Lenin (1917-1924)
Josef V. Stalin (1924-1953)
Nikita S. Khrushchev (1953-1964)
Leonid I. Brezhnev (1964-1982)
Konstantin U. Chernenko (1984-1985)
Mikhail S. Gorbachev (1985-1991)

Copyright 1999-2000
E-mail comments and questions to:
Vincent A. Lapomarda