Reasoning - from general premise to
2. Enthymeme - argument in
which one of the
premises is understood, but
A. Exordium - (the introduction) necessary
remarks and/or approach to the subject.
The purpose is to render the audience
attentive, benevolent and docile.
B. Propositio - (the theme) - statement
or view to be argued.
It often contains a partitio (or division) of
a complex argument.
D. Argumentatio - (confirmation or the argument) - embraces
a confirmatio (a confirmation) of the
argument and frequently a refutation of a
real or supposed contrary argument(s) of
E. Peroratio (final appeal) - place for emphatic reassertion of
the proposition or appeal to the
audience to adopt a course of
action, or for general summary
- emphatic opposition of ideas or contrast
the expression of one idea by the use of
two nouns joined by "and" instead of by
one noun modified by an adjective or by
another noun in the possessive.
Sentence - main idea of sentence is not
expressed at the outset, but is
reserved to the end of the sentence.
A. Alliteration- the repetition of the same letter at the
beginning of two or more adjacent
words or syllables.
B. Anaphora - the repetition of a word, phrase or
clause in the identical sentence location
for the purpose of emphasis; frequently
done in pairs or triplets.
C. Apostrophe - a direct address transferred from the
immediate audience to an imaginary
place, person or thing.
D. Chiasmus - a crisscross arrangement of words.
E. Hysteron Proteron - a reversal of the logical sequence
F. Litotes - an understatement, usually in the form of
negative statement implying a positive
G. Metaphor - an implied comparison.
H. Onomatopeia - an adaptation of the sound of words
to the sense.
I. Oxymoron - an apparent contradiction in terms.
J. Praeteritio - a deliberate reference though guised
in a "passing over" statement.
K. Polysyndeton - repetition of a conjunction with
each series of words or clauses.
L. Rhetorical Question - question framed in such a
way that the answer is
M. Tautology - repetition of meaning in synonymous
N. Tmesis - the separation of two parts of a
compound word by an intervening word