Classical Rhetoric

Simple definition: "the skillful or artistic use of speech." or "The
                                combination of the logical presentation and the
                                skillful arrangement of words for maximum
        types of logical argumentation:
  A. Analogy - if two or more things agree with one
                     another in one respect, they will
                     probably agree with one another in
                     other respects.
        B. Inductive Reasoning - from particular data to
                                               general conclusion.

        C. Deductive Reasoning - from general premise to
                                                particular conclusion.

    1. Syllogism - logical scheme of analysis of
                         formal argument consisting of a
                         major premise, a minor premise,
                         and a conclusion necessarily
        Example of a Syllogism from Cicero's Pro Milone
        Major Premise: "An assassin and criminal may be justly slain."
          Minor Premise: "Clodius was an assassin and criminal"
Conclusion: "Clodius was justly slain."

    2. Enthymeme - argument in which one of the
                             premises is understood, but
                             not stated.


 A. Exordium - (the introduction) necessary preliminary
                        remarks and/or approach to the subject.
                        The purpose is to render the audience
                        attentive, benevolent and docile.

 B. Propositio - (the theme) - statement or view to be argued.
                        It often contains a partitio (or division) of
                        a complex argument.

                 C. Narratio -   (the evidence) - the facts upon which the
                                         argument is based; the evidence of the

                  D. Argumentatio - (confirmation or the argument) - embraces
                                            a confirmatio (a confirmation) of the
                                            argument and frequently a refutation of a
                                            real or supposed contrary argument(s) of
                                            the opponent.

                  E. Peroratio (final appeal) - place for emphatic reassertion of
                                                             the proposition or appeal to the
                                                             audience to adopt a course of
                                                             action, or for general summary


        A. Antithesis - emphatic opposition of ideas or contrast
                                of ideas.

        B. Hendiadys - the expression of one idea by the use of
                                two nouns joined by "and" instead of by
                                one noun modified by an adjective or by
                                another noun in the possessive.

        C. Periodic Sentence - main idea of sentence is not
                                          expressed at the outset, but is
                                          reserved to the end of the sentence.

                 IV. FIGURES OF SPEECH (some):

                         A. Alliteration- the repetition of the same letter at the
                                                 beginning of two or more adjacent
                                                 words or syllables.

                         B. Anaphora   - the repetition of a word, phrase or
                                                 clause in the identical sentence location
                                                 for the purpose of emphasis; frequently
                                                 done in pairs or triplets.

                         C. Apostrophe - a direct address transferred from the
                                                  immediate audience to an imaginary
                                                  place, person or thing.

                         D. Chiasmus -  a crisscross arrangement of words.

                         E. Hysteron Proteron - a reversal of the logical sequence
                                                            of ideas.

                         F. Litotes - an understatement, usually in the form of
                                          negative statement implying a positive

                         G. Metaphor - an implied comparison.

                         H. Onomatopeia - an adaptation of the sound of words
                                                      to the sense.

                          I. Oxymoron - an apparent contradiction in terms.

                         J. Praeteritio - a deliberate reference though guised
                                                in a "passing over" statement.

                         K. Polysyndeton - repetition of a conjunction with
                                                      each series of words or clauses.

                        L. Rhetorical Question - question framed in such a
                                                                way that the answer is

                          M. Tautology - repetition of meaning in synonymous

                           N. Tmesis - the separation of two parts of a
                                             compound word by an intervening word
                                             or phrase.