|BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ROMAN PILGRIMAGES:
James, “The Planning of Renaissance Rome, 1450-1580”, in Rome
in the Renaissance--The City and the Myth, ed. P.A. Ramsey,
MRTS, 1982, 3-18. Excellent description of the Rome that the Papacy
returned to, c.1420. Mentions that these conditions were described
in Papal Bull of Martin V, 1425.
Baedeker, Karl. Central
Italy and Rome. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, Publisher, 1909.
Baldovin, John Francis, S.J, The
Urban Character of Christian Worship: The Orgins, Development,
and Meaning of Stational Liturgy, Pont. Institutum Studiorum
Orientalium: Rome, 1987.
Birch, Debra J., Pilgrimage to
Rome in the Middle Ages : continuity and change, Woodbridge,
Suffolk ; Rochester, NY : Boydell Press, 1998.
Cahn, Walter. "Margaret
of York’s Guide to the Pilgrimage Churches of Rome."
Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of Tondal:
papers delivered at a symposium organized by the Department of
Manuscripts of the J. Paul Getty in collaboration with the Huntington
Library and Art Collections, June 21-24, 1990. Malibu: J. Paul
Getty Museum, 1992, 89-98. Summary: Introduces an illuminated
manuscript acquired by Yale University's Beinecke Library (New
Haven) in 1982. Beinecke MS 639 is possibly attributable to Bruges
in the 1470s, and may have been acquired by Margaret ready-made.
Notes: In: Margaret of York, Simon Marmion, and the Visions of
Tondal : papers delivered at a symposium organized by the Department
of Manuscripts of the J. Paul Getty Museum in collaboration with
the Huntington Library and Art Collections, June 21-24, 1990.
Kren, Thomas, ed. Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992.
Gnoli, Umberto, Topografia topomastica
di Roma medioevale e moderna, Foligno, 1984 (2nd ed).
Largely a Gazetteer, includes helpful sections of the Maggi-Maupin
map of 1625, revised by Losi in 1774, and engravings of various
buildings by Israel Silvestre (17th cen).
Frank, Thomas, “English Travelers
in Rome”, English Miscellany, 4, 1953, 95-132. Focus on
travelers of Elizabethan Age, but covers history of Hospital of
St. Thomas of Canterbury and discusses earlier accounts.
Gardner, Julian, “Arnolfo di Cambio
and Roman Tomb Design”, Burlington Magazine, CXV, 1973,
Gardner, Julian, “Pope Nicholas
IV ad the Decoration of Santa Maria Maggiore”, Zeitschrift
fur Kunstgeschichte, XXXVI, 1973, 1-50.
Grossi, Joseph L, Jr.
Uncommon Fatherland: Medieval English Perceptions of Rome and
Italy (John Lydgate, John Capgrave, Anglo-Italian Relations)
Ohio State University. Ph. D. Dissertation Advisor Christian K.
Kacher. 1999. Summary: This dissertation argues that late medieval
English literature depicts Rome and Italy with the same cultural
anxieties found in works that imagine the Muslim world. Although
partially Orientalizing Rome and Italy, however, the alliterative
Morte Arthure, John Lydgate's Fall of Princes and John Capgrave's
Solace of Pilgrims also acknowledge their centrality in the European
The introduction explains the dissertation's methodology and theoretical
concerns. It then surveys familiar images of papal Rome and northern
Italian bankers and merchants as they appear in literary and official
texts. The first chapter focuses on the alliterative Morte Arthure's
aligning of imperial Rome and the medieval northern Italian communes
with the “Saracen” East and Africa. In the second
chapter Lydgate's Fall of Princes is examined for its moralistic
and highly critical assessment not only of ancient Roman history
but also of the Anglophobic and untrustworthy Boccaccio. Finally,
the third chapter shows how in the Solace of Pilgrims Capgrave
celebrates Christian Rome's triumph over its earlier pagan identity
but also scorns the current barbarity, weak faith and confabulating
tendencies of contemporary Romans. The chapter concludes by considering
the two different ideas of Rome present in Capgrave's pilgrimage
manual and the Book of Margery Kempe.
The English writers analyzed here at once acknowledge the cultural,
historical and economic importance of Rome, Florence, Genoa, Venice,
Milan and their surrounding regions, but at the same time suggest
that ultimately it is English spiritual piety, cultural unity
and the steadfastness of English kings and princes that make England
superior to Italy. Although England forms, with the Italian city-states,
part of the communis patria or common fatherland of imperial and
papal Rome, the constant strife and violence in Italy and the
subversive traits of Italians in England lead English writers
to look beyond and even to question that commonality.
Henkels, H., “Remarks on the Late
3th century Apse Decoration in S. Maria Maggiore”, Simiolus,
IV, 1971, 128-49.
Hetherington, Paul, “Pietro Cavallini,
Artistic Style and Patronage in Late Medieval Rome”, Burlington
Magazine, CXIV, 1972, 4-10.
Heydenreich, Ludwig, Architecture
in Italy, 1400-1500, revised by Paul Davies, New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1996. (Pelican History of Art series). Chapter
six deals with Roman architecture in the 15th century.
Hulbert, J.R., “Some Medieval Advertisements
of Rome”, Modern Philology, 20, 1922-23, 403-424. Deals
specifically with the “libri indulgentiarum”, sources helpful
for topographical studies and less studied than the Mirabilia
or Itineraries of 5th-8th centuries.
Hibbert, Christopher, Rome, Biography
of a City, Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin 1987, c1985.
Krautheimer, Richard, Rome, Profile
of a City, 312-1308, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University
Krautheimer, Richard, St. Peter’s
and Medieval Rome, Rome: Unione internazionale degli istituti
di archeologia, storia e storia dell'arte in Roma, 1985.
Krautheimer, Richard, Early Christian
and Byzantine Architecture, New Haven: Yale University Press,
Llewellyn, Peter, Rome in the
Dark Ages, New York: Barnes & Noble, 1996.
Masson, Georgina, The Companion
Guide to Rome, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall ; London
: Collins, 1983.
Osborne, John. “The
Roman catacombs in the Middle Ages.” Papers of the British
School at Rome 53 (1985) 278-328.Physical Details: 12 illustrations.
Summary: Examines documentary evidence for the use of Rome's suburban
cemeteries from the 6th-14th cs; and presents a catalogue of mural
paintings added to the catacombs during this period. Argues that
there are three distinct phases of use: as large extra-mural cemeteries
(ca.200-first half, 6th c.); as pilgrimage sites for the veneration
of tombs of saints (6th-early 8th cs.); and as underground chapels
and hypogea associated with monasteries (second half, 8th c.-14th
Paoletti, John and Gary Radke: Art
in Renaissance Italy, New York: Abrams, Inc., 1997. Fifteenth-Century
Rome is discussed on pages 65-74 and 236-245.
Parks, George B., The English
Traveler to Italy, Vol. 1, The Middle Ages (to 1525),
Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura: Rome, 1954. A good study
of English travelers to Italy in the period. thoroughly covers
types of travelers (including pilgrims), establishment of the
English hospices in Rome in the late 14th century, jubilee years,
and an examination of written accounts of visitors.
Partner, Peter, Renaissance Rome
1500-1559, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. Although
Partner’s work concerns itself with the 16th century, he covers
the 15th century in his lengthy Introduction.
Partridge, Loren, The Art of
Renaissance Rome, 1400-1600, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996.
Chapter one considers the city in the very early 15th century.
Robbins, Deborah King.
A Case Study of Medieval Urban Process: Rome's Trastevere
(1250-1450) (Italy). Ph. D Dissertation University of California,
Berkeley. Advisor: Spiro Kostof. 1989. Summary: This dissertation
focuses on the Roman district of Trastevere in the late Middle
Ages (1250-1450). The structure of the dissertation is determined
by the multiple themes of urban process--topographic, socio-economic,
political, religious and architectural. Topographic and socio-economic
conditions established in antiquity laid the foundation for Trastevere's
medieval development. These include the administrative distinction
of Trastevere resulting from its geographic location across the
Tiber from the rest of Rome, its early connections with Rome's
maritime trade, and the ancient region's street pattern. Trastevere's
early medieval transformation was determined by the pathways of
old and new streets, and the location of newly important sites
and monuments. Continued political ambiguity and conflict result
from the region's topographic isolation.
The urban port of Rome, Trastevere's most important economic institution,
was located on Trastevere's river bank from the ninth century.
This site created an undeniable economic link between Trastevere
and Cistiberine Rome, as well as a unique and important Trasteverine
neighborhood and market. Another urban center developed around
the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, the region's largest basilica.
As an urban center, parish church, and landowner, the church of
S. Maria was influential in the urban fabric.
Trastevere's medieval residential fabric reveals social determinants.
Three classes of houses defined the streets of Trastevere and
ranged from the simplest dwelling to impressive palaces, suggesting
a mixed social topography. Their organization was structured by
family life, while entire neighborhoods responded to the dominance
of a noble family compound. Both the public and private realms
of the built environment were supervised by municipal building
officials. The regulation of Rome's urban fabric, however limited
in contrast with some medieval cities, was an important civic
concern. The church was also involved in urban regulation in its
role as landlord, maintaining the public domain against the threats
of private intrusion.
Each of these historical determinants contributed to the urban
process and transformed the urban fabric of medieval Trastevere.
This analysis of urban process suggests possibilities for fresh
interpretations of urban form in Rome and in cities everywhere.
Roma Sacra, periodical published
by the Soprintendenza per i beni artistici e storici di Roma,
since 1995, ed. Elio de Rosa. March 1998 issue (itinerary
#12) includes Santa Brigida, Santa Caterina della Rota, San Tommaso
di Canterbury & Collegio Inglese. Extremely helpful, with
maps, photographs and specific bibliography on these sites.
Stinger, Charles L., The Renaissance
in Rome, Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press,
Lanciani, Rodolfo Amedeo. Forma urbis Romae. Roma: Quasar,
1990 or 1893.
Physical Details: 1 atlas (12 p., 46 folded leaves of plates)
: col. maps ; 33 cm. Italian ISBN: 8870970132 Summary: Shows ancient
and medieval place names, monuments, streets, etc. on a modern
base map./ Originally published: scale 1:1,000. Mediolani [Milan]
: U. Hoepli, 1893-1901./ Originally issued in fascicles./ Includes
Szabo, Thomas. “Le
vie per Roma.” Storia dei Giubilei, volume primo: 1300-1423.
70-89. Physical Details: 18 ill. (14 col.), maps (some col.),
plans (some col.) Summary: On European roads (i.e., pilgrims'
routes), 13th-15th cs., leading to Rome. Notes that a comprehensive
map of the road system for pilgrims was not available until the
Holy Year of 1500.