Parish and Monastery
STUDIES OF ENGLISH MEDIEVAL PARISH ARCHITECTURE AND SOCIETY
Middelton-Stewart, Judith, Inward Purity and Outward Splendour: Death and Remembrance in the Deanery of Dunwich, Suffolk, 1370-15478 color illus.; 32 b/w illus.; c.352 pp. Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2001 Summary: In the late medieval churches of the former deanery of Dunwich there are many features which were provided by testamentary gifts; this study of three thousand wills from fifty-two Suffolk parishes, written between 1370-1547, records such material and spiritual bequests. Many purchased prayers (the prayers of the poor being particularly sought), vital for the swift passage of the soul through Purgatory; other testators left instructions for the acquisition of liturgical books, church plate and embroidered vestments. Gifts and outright donations also provided stained glass, seven-sacrament fonts and rood-screens which have survived. The wills give no hint of the destruction that was to come - a medieval chancel with vacant niches and whitewashed walls says more than the wills are prepared to tell - but the pennies and shillings which had helped towards building expenses in this coastal district of East Anglia produced at least two of the finest parish churches in the country within a few decades of the Reformation.
Basford, Kathleen , The Green Man, Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2001. 170 b/w illus.; 128p. Summary "The rarest, most recondite and fascinating art book, which is a folklore and magic books as well… An incredibly thorough study, with every example illustrated, of the weird foliate heads or masks in the medieval churches and cathedrals of Western Europe, with leaves sprouting from them": The Times of London. Kathleen Basford's introduction surveys the history and development of the Green Man from prototypes in antique and early medieval ornament to the great period of Gothic architecture when foliate heads are frequent. There are over ninety photographs, and a color frontispiece.
MEDIEVAL PARISH CHURCHES
Cattermole, Paul. “Medieval Parish Church Building in Norfolk.” Norfolk Archaeology 38 (1983): 235-79. Summary: Presents documentary references to Medieval parish church building in Norfolk in the form of a gazetteer arranged alphabetically by parish. The evidence survives mainly from the period 1370-1550 and is largely derived from will registers, though churchwardens' accounts, the Norwich Cathedral account rolls, and inscriptions are also used. Especially in the case of major building campaigns, this information is linked to stylistic evidence from the churches themselves.
Clarke, Helen. The Archaeology of Medieval England. London: British Museum Publications, 1984. Physical Details: 224 p. : 94 illustrations; plans, elevations; diagrams; maps; bibliography; index. Series: A Colonnade book. Summary: Synthesis of what is known about Medieval England (ca.1066-1500) from archaeological sources. Includes chapters on villages and moated sites, parish churches, monasteries, castles, craft and industry and towns and trade.
French, Katherine Louise, Gary G. Gibbs, and Beat A. Kumin, eds. The Parish in English Life, 1400-1600. Manchester, England; New York: Manchester University Press; New York: Distributed in the USA by St. Martin's Press, 1997. Physical Details: xii, 276 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
French, Katherine L. The People of the Parish: Community Life in
a Late Medieval English Diocese. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania
Press, 2001. Physical Details: viii, 316 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm.
Platt, Colin. The Parish Churches of Medieval England. London, Secker and Warburg, 1981. Physical Details: 185 p. : 138 illustrations; 8 text figures; plans, elevations; maps; index. Summary: The architectural development of the English parish church (ca.800-ca.1600 A.D.) is discussed in the context of its social history: the separation of parish church and chapel from minster, changes of ownership in the 12th c. and consequent rebuildings, 13th c. expansion as both population and wealth grew, the late medieval parish church as mortuary church and guild chapel. Other themes include a discussion of the duties of parish clergy, of church furnishings, of memorial sculpture, wall-paintings, and stained or painted glass. Emphasizes the explanation of the occurrence of these objects in the churches. Ends with the changes brought about in English churches by the Reformation(s)--Henrician, Edwardian, and Elizabethan. (Author, RILA, UK).
Halsey, Richard. Title: The parish churches of Medieval England [Review of a monograph]. In: British Archaeological Association Journal CXXXVI (1983) 150-151. Notes: Review of a monograph: Platt, Colin. The parish churches of Medieval England. Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art.
Kelland, Christopher. Title: The parish churches of Medieval England [Review of a monograph]. In: Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology XX (1983) 199. Notes: Review of a monograph: Platt, Colin. The parish churches of Medieval England. Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art
Brooke, C. N. L. Title: The parish churches of Medieval England [Review of a monograph]. In: Times Literary Supplement (19 June 1981) 704. Notes: Review of a monograph: Platt, Colin. The parish churches of Medieval England. London, Secker and Warburg, 1981 185 p.; 138 illustrations; 8 text figures; plans, elevations; maps; index ISBN: 0-436-37553-2.
____. The English medieval town. New York: McKay, 1976.
Sekules, Veronica. "Beauty and the Beast: Ridicule and Orthodoxy in Architectural Marginalia in Early Fourteenth-Century Lincolnshire. St Andrews's at Heckington, England," Art History v. 18 (Mar. '95) p. 37-62. Summary: Part of a special issue on cartoon, caricature, and animation. The marginal imagery on the parish church of St. Andrew's at Heckington, Lincolnshire, is examined. This imagery--manifested in almost 300 small-scale figure sculptures situated at the edges of buttresses, pinnacles, and roofs--can be seen as a visual representation of the messages of many early 14th-century sermons on the subject of penance; representations of sinners and demons serve as a warning to the living, and figures of saints serve as paradigms for a good Christian life. The message of the exterior imagery is completed by that inside the chancel. The corbels at St. Andrew's thereby constitute an instance of the art of the margins entirely reinforcing the center--acting in the service of the central devotional focus of the church and of the church acknowledging this potential.
Swanson, Robert Norman. Church and Society in Late Medieval England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993. Physical Details: 434 p.
Swanson, Robert Norman. Religion and Devotion in Europe c. 1215-1515 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Physical Details: 377 p. Cambridge Medieval Textbook.
Cook, George Henry. The English Mediaeval Parish Church London: Phoenix House, 1966, second edition. . Physical Details: 302 p.
Howard, Frank E. and E. A. Greening Lamborn. The Mediæval Styles of the English Parish Church, a Survey of their Development, Design and Features. New York, C. Scribner's Sons; London, B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1936.
Dean, Mary Alice. The Beginnings of Decorated Architecture in the Southeast Midland and East Anglia. PhD diss, University of California, 1979 (Diss. Abs. Intern. No.: 8014648). Physical Details: 545 p. Summary: Historians of the Decorated Style are aware of the important role played by buildings in the Southeast Midlands. Lincoln Cathedral, one of the earlier buildings to adopt the Rayonnant style introduced at Westminster Abbey, London, was of paramount importance, and there are other buildings of the first quality there, some clearly independent of Lincoln. Among these, Binham Priory and the parish churches of Grantham, Warmington, Raunds and Higham Ferrers always figure in discussions of early Decorated architecture. A systematic investigation of the area would aim to explain these appearances, to identify other important local buildings, and properly place the work of the region in a larger context. The area was active in the development of English Gothic architecture even before Westminster architectural ideas were introduced and disseminated by major cathedral and abbey workshops. Lincoln Cathedral first brought the Early English Gothic style to the area and it tended to dominate, but Peterborough, Ely, and some of the other great Fenland abbeys were also active builders at the time. All the local workshops tended to look outside the region for new ideas which they then interpreted and promoted among the smaller local buildings. The parish churches, which were numerous and often ambitious, are thus important evidence about contemporary attitudes towards the Gothic style.
Fawcett, Richard. “St. Mary at Wiveton in Norfolk, and a Group of Churches Attributed to its Mason.” Antiquaries Journal LXII/1 (1982): 35-56. Physical Details: 19 illustrations; 10 text figures; diagrams; maps. Summary: A number of ecclesiastical buildings in Norfolk and northern Suffolk show a common repertoire of distinctively elaborated mouldings, which in several cases involves such precise repetition of formations that the same templates must have been used repeatedly. On the evidence of the mouldings, and of other detailed similarities between the buildings, it is argued that they may all be seen as the work of the same designing mason, active in the second quarter of the 15th c. The range of his personal manner of design in parochial churches is best seen at Wiveton, near the north coast, but he was also able to work on a more expanded scale, as in the Erpingham Gate into Norwich Cathedral close; the connecting link between the two scales of his work is to be found in the parochial west tower of Wymondham Abbey.
Fawcett, Richard. “A Group of Churches by the Architect of Great Walsingham.” Norfolk Archaeology XXXVII/3 (1980): 277-94. Physical Details: 9 illustrations. Summary: Nine churches concentrated in central Norfolk show features that are established to be the work of the same anonymous architect. Close similarities are found in measurements and design of window tracery and mouldings in the aisled naves of Great Walsingham, Beeston-next-Mileham, Tunstead and Beetley, the nave and choir of Little Fransham, Houghton-Saint-Giles Slipper Chapel, the south porch and upper stage of the tower of Rougham, the north aisle of Narborough, and the west window of Mileham. Comparison with better-documented churches suggests dates within the 1340s and 1350s. (Staff, RILA, UK).
Cotton, Simon. “Mediaeval Roodscreens in Norfolk, their construction and painting dates. Norfolk Archaeology 40/1 (1987): 44-54. Notes: Summary in English. Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art.
Haward, Birkin. Norfolk Album: Medieval Church Arcades: A Measured Drawing Survey of Arcades with Lozenge Piers, with Notes and other Church and Norfolk Drawings, 1983-1995. Ipswich: B. Haward, 1995. Physical Details: 172 p. : ill. (some col.), maps, plans; bibliogr. Notes: Source of data: BHA, Bibliography of the history of art. References: BHA, 6 12860 (1996)
Batcock, Neil. “The Ruined and Disused Churches of Norfolk.” East Anglian Archaeology no. 50, (1991): 1-199. Physical Details: ill., maps, plans. Summary: Survey of 254 churches (excluding Norwich), of which only two are of post-medieval foundation. Most site reports are on microfiche, with summary reports within the main text. Brief consideration is given to relevant issues such as the rate of deterioration of fabric, causes of abandonment, quality of churches and contents, and recommendations for future management.
Taylor, Robert. “28-32 King Street, King’s Lynn.” Norfolk Archaeology 40, no.3 (1989): 260-285. Physical Details: 31 ill., map, plan. Summary: Describes standing structures (remains of stone house, ca.1200, open hall built in later 13th c., and timber-framed houses built ca.1300) and excavation report of 1980.
Richmond, H., R. Taylor and P. Wade Martins. “N 28-34 Queen Street, Kings Lynn.” East-Anglian Archaeology Report Norwich no.14 (1982): 108-24. Summary: Trois maisons récemment détruites conservaient des parties de pierre remontant à la fin du 12-début 13 s. Etudes de ces structures. Notes: Source of data: Répertoire d'art et d'archéologie (RAA)
Wade Martins, P. “N 22 King Street, Kings Lynn.” East-Anglian Archaeology Report Norwich no.14 (1982): 125-129. Summary: Maison détruite en 1901, qui comportait des éléments d'encadrement de porte et une fenêtre d'époque gothique, 13 s.
“Excursions 1994: Report and Notes on Some Findings.” Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History 38 (1995): 365-382. Physical Details: 6 ill., 3 maps, 1 plan. Summary: Describes houses, churches and monuments of interest noted during visits by members of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History in 1994. Detailed descriptions are given especially of Little Haugh Hall in Norton, Bruisyard Hall, and Denston Hall. Notes: Source of data: BHA, Bibliography of the history of art. References: BHA, 6 12317 (1996)
St. Mary’s Guildhall, Lincoln
Williams, John. “Northampton’s Medieval Guildhalls.” Northamptonshire Past and Present 7/1 (1983-1984): 5-9. Physical Details: 2 illustrations; maps. Summary: Reviews the history of Northampton's Medieval guildhalls, including recently discovered documentary evidence of a mid 12th c. guildhall, and assesses their position relative to the town's administration and government. (Courtauld Institute).
Thompson, Michael. The Medieval Hall: The Basis of Secular Domestic Life, 600-1600 A.D. Aldershot: Scolar, 1995. Physical Details: xii, 212 p. : 97 ill., plans; bibliogr., index. Summary: An architectural and social history of the great hall in Britain and continental Europe. Using a range of literary and archaeological sources in combination with close examination of standing halls and remains, describes and interprets the development of one of the dominant architectural features of medieval life. Also examines the social functions.
Whittingham, A. B. “The White Swan Inn, St. Peter’s Street, Norwich.” Norfolk Archaeology. 39/1 (1984): 38-50. Physical Details: 9 illustrations; 1 text figure; plans, elevations. Summary: Evidence of much of the building history emerged during demolition (1961). The oldest feature was a re-used early 14th c. window, but the site was extended and the building remodelled in the later 14th c. Later alterations and additions include two early 15th c. undercrofts, a wing of ca.1480, some modernisation in ca.1660, refronting and conversion of the Great Chamber to a club room, late 18th or early 19th c. In the appendix, Green describes objects from the inn given to the Norwich Castle Museum: a wooden bracket with the figure of a young man (ca.1400), a fragmentary wall painting of a knight in armor on horseback (late 14th c.), and the head of a 15th c. window cut from a single piece of wood. (RILA, GBR). Notes: Summary in English.
Victoria and Albert Museum (Corp Author) English Medieval Furniture and Woodwork. Catalogue of English Furniture and Woodwork. Charles Tracy and Harold Clifford Smith. (eds) London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1988.
Coldstream, Nicola. “York Minster and the Decorated style in Yorkshire; Architectural Reaction to York in the First Half of the Fourteenth Century.” Yorkshire Archaeological Journal LII (1980): 89-110. Physical Details: 10 illustrations. Summary: The new styles of nave and west front of York Minster had only a limited influence on new buildings in Yorkshire between ca.1290 and ca.1350. They adopted superficial details but remained fundamentally under the influence of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincoln cathedral itself. Among the buildings discussed are Guisborough priory church; S. Peter, Howden; Beverly Minster; Selby Abbey church; and S. Patrick, Patrington. (Author, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal). RILA, 11 462 (1985)
Ryder, Peter F. Medieval Buildings of Yorkshire. Ashbourne, Moorland, 1982. Physical Details: 159 p. Summary: Thematic study of Yorkshire buildings dating from between the Anglo-Saxon period and 1550. The buildings of York are the subject of the initial chapter, followed by brief surveys of Yorkshire's great churches (Beverley and Ripon Minsters, the collegiate churches of Hemingbrough, Howden and Rotherham, and the monastic churches of Selby and Bridlington), monastic houses, parish churches, minor ecclesiastical buildings, castles, fortified houses, houses and other Medieval buildings. (Author, RILA, UK).
Hughes, Jonathan. Pastors and Visionaries: Religion and Secular Life in Late Medieval Yorkshire. Woodbridge, Suffolk; Wolfeboro, N.H.: Boydell Press, 1988. Physical Details: 419 p.
Gauthiez, Bernard. “The Planning of the Town of Bury St. Edmunds: A Probable Norman Origin.” Bury St. Edmunds: Medieval Art, Architecture, Archaeology, and Economy. London: British Archaeological Association, 1998, 81-97. Physical Details: 8 plans. Summary: The plan of the town of Bury S. Edmunds dates mainly from the late 11th c., with some Saxon elements. The development of a new town, largely erasing the previous settlement, is parallel to the building of the huge abbey church, according to a general layout enlarged in the 12th c. The design of the west part of the town probably belongs to a tradition of laying-out towns established at Rouen in Normany in the early 10th c., and used continuously until the end of the 12th c. Analyses some continental Norman towns in this tradition, and compares Bury S. Edmunds to them. Proposes a chronology for the development of the town of Bury between the Conquest and the end of the 12th c., concluding that the town may have been conceived under abbot Anselm and sacrist Hervey as a gigantic shrine, so to speak, for the S. Edmund's body.
Heywood, Stephen. “Aspects of the Romanesque Church of Bury
St. Edmunds Abbey in their Regional Context.” Bury St. Edmunds:
Medieval Art, Architecture, Archaeology, and Economy. London: British
Archaeological Association, 1998, 16-21, pl. I-V.
Mcaleer, J. Philip. “The West Front of the Abbey Church.” Bury St. Edmunds: Medieval Art, Architecture, Archaeology, and Economy. London: British Archaeological Association, 1998, 22-33, pl. VI-XI. Physical Details: 12 ill. Summary: Considers the building history of the western structure of the abbey. Recent unpicking of some of the domestic structures inserted into the ruins has revealed that alteration to the fabric after either the collapse of the west tower in 1430 or the fire of 1465 as more extensive than previously suspected
Hahn, Cynthia. “Peregrinatio et Natio: The Illustrated Life of Edmund, King and Martyr.” Gesta 1991, v.30, no.2, 119-139. Physical Details: 19 ill. Summary: Analysis of the iconography of the miniatures in the manuscript (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M. 736), which was produced ca.1130 in the monastery of Bury S. Edmunds, the home of the relics of the saint and king. Shows how the illumination seeks to present the monastery and its church as an English pilgrimage center. Edmund is represented as a pilgrim king, and as such may be meant to serve as a model of the judicious use of power for the contemporary king, Henry I. The manuscript also proposes him as a candidate for national patron saint.
Abou-El-Haj, Barbara. “Bury St. Edmunds Abbey between 1070 and 1124: A History of Property, Privilege, and Monastic Art Production.” Art History VI/1 (Mar 1983) 1-29. Physical Details: 20 illustrations; plans, elevations. Summary: A study of the progressive enrichment of the saint's shrine whose chronology unfolds as an uneven effort to preserve conventual control over land and tenants in the face of encroachments from the Norman bishops of East Anglia and Henry I. The convent's resistance was ideologically sustained in a new art: an immensely-scaled abbey church, hagiographical literature detailing 11th c. conventual history and posthumous miracles of St. Edmund, reworked and illustrated in the Life and miracles of S. Edmund (MS M.736, Pierpont Morgan Library, New York) with disproportionate concentration on events where Edmund destroys those who attack his property. (Author, RILA, GBR). Notes: Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art.
Sharpe, Richard. “Reconstructing the Medieval Library of Bury St. Edmunds Abbey: The Lost Catalogue of Henry of Kirkstead.” Bury St. Edmunds: Medieval Art, Architecture, Archaeology, and Economy. London: British Archaeological Association, 1998, 204-218. Summary: The librarian Henry of Kirkstead's marking of books with an exlibris inscription and a class-mark enables a reconstruction to be made of the late-14th c. library catalogue from Bury.
Parker, Elizabeth C. The Cloisters Cross: Its Art and Meaning. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Dist. by H.N. Abrams, 1994. Physical Details: 316 p., [xvi] p. of pl. : ill. (17 col.), diagrams; sel. bibliogr., index. Summary: Comprehensive assessment of provenance, iconography, liturgical context, and function of the large, mid-12th c. ivory cross in The Cloisters, New York. Probably produced at the Abbey of Bury Saint Edmunds, possibly by Master Hugo. Appendices include translations of the Latin inscriptions.
Heskop, T. A. “The Production and Artistry of the Bury Bible.” Bury St. Edmunds: Medieval Art, Architecture, Archaeology, and Economy. London: British Archaeological Association, 1998, 172-185, pl. XLI-XLV. Physical Details: 10 ill. (2 col.) Summary: Looks at some hitherto neglected difficulties affecting the understanding of the Bury Bible (Cambridge, Cambridge University, Corpus Christi College, MS 2). Examines the evidence for the planning and production of the book, particularly some anomalies in the first quire, the use of double thickness vellum for much of the illumination, and the range of capital lettering styles in the manuscript. Together these suggest a number of uncertainties, contingencies and possibly even disruptions in the commission. Considers the choice of subject matter and an aspect of the construction of the pictorial composition. Suggests that the artist, Master Hugo, seems to have imposed his own ethos on the representation of the narratives both as regards their emotional content (or lack of it), and the invention of the iconography. Also introduces a recently discovered fragment of the missing second volume of the Bible, which was recently sold by a London book dealer. The conclusion places the Bible within the context of manuscript commissions at Bury in an attempt to account for the quality, quantity and character of the illumination.
Christie, Patricia M. “Excavations at Denny Abbey.” Archaeological
Journal CXXXVII (1980) 138-279. Physical Details: 71 illustrations;
plans, elevations; diagrams; maps.
Baggs, Tony. “Denny
Abbey.” Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral 97 London,
1979. Series: British Archaeological Association, conference transactions,
Christi, P. M., and Coad, J. G. "Excavations at Denny Abbey." Archaeological Journal 137 (1980): 138-279.