England Jerusalem
Canterbury Santiago de Compostela

Sumption, J. .Pilgrimage, London, 1975.

Turner, V. & Turner, E. Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture, New York, 1978.

Webb, D. Pilgrims and Pilgrimage in the Medieval West, London, 1999.

Gauthier, Marie-Madeleine and J. A. Underwood. Highways of the Faith: Relics and Reliquaries from Jerusalem to Compostela. Secaucus, N.J.: Wellfleet Press, 1986.

Sumption, Jonathan. Pilgrimage. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littleman, 1975.

de Voragine, Jacobus. The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints. trans. William Granger Ryan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Kline, Naomi Reed, Maps of Medieval Thought: The Hereford Paradigm, Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2001, colour illus.; 80 b/w illus.; c.290pp Summary: Filled with information and lore, mappae mundi present an encyclopedic panorama of the conceptual 'landscape' of the middle ages. Previously objects of study for cartographers and geographers, the value of medieval maps to scholars in other fields is now recognized and this book, written from an art historical perspective, illuminates the medieval view of the work represented in a group of maps of c.1300. Through examination of literary, visual, oral and textual evidence places the Hereford mappa mundi and others like it (such as the Psalter Maps, the "Sawley Map', and the Ebstorf Map) within the larger context of medieval art and intellectual history. The mappa mundi in Hereford cathedral is at the heart of this study: it has more than one thousand texts and images of geographical subjects, monuments, animals, plants, peoples, biblical sites, and incidents, legendary material, historical information and much more; distinctions between 'real' and 'fantastic' and fluid; time detailed analysis of the images and texts of the Hereford map which, thus deciphered, allow comparison with related mappae mundi as well as with other texts and images.
1. Hereford map as conceptual device: Cosmological wheel, Frame as time, Medieval audience; 2. Hereford map and worlds: Animals, Strange and monstrous races, Bible and crusades, Alexander; 3. Cartographic context

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Finucane, R.C. Miracles and Pilgrims: Popular Beliefs in Medieval England, London, 1977.

Nilson, Ben, Cathedral Shrines of Medieval England17 b/w illus.; c.286 pp., Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2001. Summary: This first study devoted to cathedral shrines draws on surviving cathedral records to describe their nature and development in England from around 1066 to 1540. The development of the shrine itself, the monument enclosing the saint's body, is followed, and the connections between the chapel around the shrine and changes in church architecture considered. Accounts of the cathedral clergy who built and managed the shrines, the pilgrims who visited them, and the fluctuating fortunes of the cathedrals which housed them, complete the book.

Connolly, Daniel Kevin. Imagined Pilgrimage in Gothic Art: Maps, Manuscripts and Labyrinths (Matthew, Paris, England, Medieval). University of Chicago. Advisor Linda Seidel. 1998. Summary: Maps and the related manuscripts by the thirteenth-century English artist and chronicler Matthew Paris provide a case study of the use of medieval images for imagined pilgrimage. Neither these maps--his itineraries and mappamundi--nor imagined pilgrimage have received any full length study. Chapter 1 defines the meditational contexts in which such forms of pilgrimage took place. The itineraries were designed to encourage their readers to internalize the maps and to project their embodied responses into their workings, where viewers and maps cooperated in the construction of an imagined pilgrimage. Chapter 2 identifies local, practical contexts by which the brethren of St. Albans would have understood these constructions.
Chapter 3 explores how liturgical manipulations of time and space informed medieval mappaemundi, especially in the itineraries' different depictions of an apocalyptic Jerusalem. The unique design of Paris' mappamundi also encouraged embodied access to Jerusalem and is explained by its reference to the shape of other mappaemundi as a chlamys--an imperial and liturgical garment.
How the itineraries shaped the geography of the world as a history of the Divine Plan is explored in Chapter 4. The foundational myths of London, Rome and Jerusalem, the seven page format of the itineraries, and the different associations of history with both liturgy and the Divine Plan taught the monks to read the itineraries as a meditative aid to the recollection of sacred history.
Chapter 5 expands the corpus of materials that can be explained under the rubric of imagined pilgrimage to include the labyrinth pavements of the Gothic cathedrals surrounding Paris. Medievals often paired mappaemundi with labyrinths as parallel depictions of the world. Both labyrinths and mappaemundi were organized around two vantages: a stationary, exterior position, and a mobile, interior perusal. The external vantage point is one that properly belonged to God and which devolved to kings and emperors as a sign of their right to rule. The production of a "presentation copy" of Matthew Paris' mappamundi for King Henry III, implicated that form of vision as another apparatus of Henry's program of state decoration in his chambers at Westminster.

Spencer, Brian. Pilgrim Souvenirs and Secular Badges. London: Stationery Office, 1998.Physical Details: xii, 349 p. : ill., maps; bibliogr. Series: Medieval finds from excavation in London; 7. Summary: Examines the souvenirs collected at centres of religious attraction by pilgrims who either lived in London or journeyed through it between the late 12th and the early 16th c. Also looks at comparable material of a more worldly character. Brings together and appraises finds in both categories, which have resulted from excavations in London during the 1970s to early 1990s, mainly from waterfront sites. The finds shed light on a wide range of popular medieval imagery, beliefs and religious practices and on many aspects of everyday life.

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Great Britain Ordinance Survey. Ordnance Survey Historical Map & Guide. Roman and Medieval Canterbury. Southampton:Ordnance Survey, 1990.

Blick, Sarah Ann. A Canterbury Keepsake: English Medieval Pilgrim Souvenirs and Popular Culture. University of Kansas. Ph. D. Dissertations 1994. Summary: Among the most coveted, sought-after objects of the Middle Ages were religious memorabilia voraciously collected by pilgrims on their journeys. Although these inexpensive souvenirs were usually made of common materials such as lead, tin, and paper, popular belief in legends elevated them from the mundane to the magical. Tales of miracles transformed these mementoes into secondary relics that could cure illness, ensure salvation, and ward off evil.
This dissertation combines two approaches to the study of pilgrim souvenirs. The first is a general overview of pilgrim souvenirs as a mass phenomenon, including their cultural context, their place in religion, and the technical issues associated with their production. This is the first time that such a survey has been done, and it should serve as an introductory point for art historians. The second approach is a focused, art-historical case study of pilgrim souvenirs made at Canterbury Cathedral in England.
My research of the pilgrim souvenirs of Canterbury Cathedral has led me to the following significant conclusions: (1) the design of pilgrim souvenirs closely imitated the reliquaries, tombs or shrines, and imagery surrounding these objects of veneration within the cathedral. Pilgrim souvenirs reveal glimpses of the decoration and shape of the tomb and shrine of St. Thomas Becket, which have long since been destroyed. The head reliquary of St. Thomas and even stained glass windows depicting his miracles were worthy of emulation in souvenirs. (2) The cult of St. Thomas Becket changed significantly in the fourteenth century, reflecting the growth of mass pilgrimage in the form of pilgrim souvenirs. Ampullae containing blood-tinged Canterbury Water were replaced by the even more popular badges, reflecting a deep change in attitude towards what kind of pilgrim souvenir could impart relic-like power. Iconography of pilgrim souvenirs also points to heretofore unknown aspects of worship within the cult.

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Vilney, Zev. The New Israel Atlas: Bible to Present Day. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1969.

Biddle, Martin, The Tomb of Christ. Thrupp, Gloc. : Sutton, 1999. 172 p. extensive illustration of tomb from 4th century to present. Authoritative, concise, clearly presented.

Howard, Donald Roy. Writers and Pilgrims: Medieval Pilgrimage Narratives and their Posterity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Egeria: Description of the Liturgical Year in Jerusalem: Latin 4th Century Account, English Translation and bibliograpy by Michael Fraser, Department of Theology,University of Durham. June 1994

Ellis, Sir Henry (1851) (ed.), The Pylgrymage of Sir Richard Guylfirde to the Holy Land, AD 1506, Camden Society, London.

Luttrell, A. (1990), 'Englishwomen as Pilgrims to Jerusalem: Isolda Parewastell, 1365', in J.B. Holloway, C.S. Wright and J. Bechtold (eds), Equally in God's Image: Women in the Middle Ages, New York, pp. 184-97.

Stewart, A. (trans.), The Book of the Wanderings of Felix Fabri, Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, London, 1892.

Stewart, A. (trans.), John Poloner's Description of the Holy Land (c. 1421 A.D.), Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, London, 1894.

Weissman, H.P. 'Margery Kempe in Jerusalem: Hysterica Compassio in the Late Middle Ages', in M.J. Carruthers and E.D. Kirk (eds), Acts of Interpretation: The Text and its Contexts, 700-1600. Essays in Medieval and Renaissance Literature in Honor of E.T. Donaldson, Norman, Okla., 1982. pp.201-17.

LeBeau, Bryan F., Menahem Mor – Philip M. and Ethel Klutznick Chair in Jewish Civilization Symposium. Pilgrims & Travelers to the Holy Land. 7th, 1994 Omaha, Neb.: Creighton University Press, 1996. Summary: Holy and haram : the limits of sacred real estate / Francis E. Peters -- Sacred space and profane power : Victor Turner and the perspective of Holy Land pilgrimage / Thomas A. Idinopulos -- Pilgrims and pilgrimage to Hebron (al-Khalil) during the early Muslim period (638?- 1099) / Amikam Elad -- Muslim pilgrimage to Jerusalem in the Mamluk period / Yehoshua Frenkel -- The pilgrimage to Nebi Musa and the origins of Palestinian nationalism / Roger Friedland and Richard D. Hecht -- Jerusalem in late medieval itineraria / Thomas Renna -- Mandeville's Jews among others / Benjamin Braude -- The vision becomes reality : medieval women pilgrims to the Holy Land / Kristine T. Utterback -- Pilgrimage, ritual, and power strategies : Felix Fabri's pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1483 / Dorothea R. French -- Representation and ideals : the construction of women in travel literature to the Holy Land / Cathy Gutierrez -- Clorinda Minor, from pilgrim to pioneer / Barbera Kreiger -- Ambigious pilgrims : American protestant travelers to Ottoman Palestine, 1867-1914 / Edward L. Queen, II -- Nineteenth-century Mormon pilgrimages to the Holy Land / Andrew C. Skinner -- Staying home for the sights : surrogate destinations in America for Holy Land travel / Lester I. Vogel -- Bahá’í pilgrimage to Israel / Gandihimnohan Viswanathan.

Levine, Lee I. Jerusalem: Its Sanctity and Centrality to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. New York: Continuum, 1999. Summary::Glenn Bowman --The attitudes of Church Fathers toward pilgrimage to Jerusalem in the fourth and fifth centuries / Brouria Bitton-Ashkelony -- The Jerusalem bishopric and the Jews in the fourth century: history and eschatology / Oded Irshai -- "The mystery of Judaea" (Jerome, Ep. 46): the Holy City of Jerusalem between history and symbol in early Christian thought / Lorenzo Perrone -- Loving the Jerusalem below: the monks of Palestine / Robert L. Wilken -- The influence of Jerusalem on Christian liturgy / Paul F. Bradshaw -- Jerusalem in the early seventh century: hopes and aspirations of Christians and Jews / Günter Stemberger -- Space and holiness in medieval Jerusalem / Hava Lazarus-Yafeh -- Pilgrims and pilgrimage to Jerusalem during the early Muslim period / Amikam Elad -- Jerusalem and the Genesis of Islamic scripture / Angelika Neuwirth -- Three perspectives on Jerusalem: Jewish, Christian and Muslim pilgrims in the twelfth century / Miryam Rosen-Ayalon --Mystical Jerusalems / Guy G. Stroumsa -- Jerusalem and the sign of the Cross (with particular reference to the cross of pilgrimage and crusading in the twelfth century) / Giles Constable -- Jerusalem as Christian symbol during the first crusade: Jewish awareness and response / Robert Chazan -- The loss of Christian Jerusalem in late Medieval liturgy

Ganz-Blattler, Ursula. Andacht und Abenteuer: Berichte europaïscher Jerusalem - und Santiago-Pilger (1320-1520). Tübingen: G. Narr, 1990. Summary: Autour de 300 récits de pèlerinage recensés entre 1301 et 1540, qui révèlent un changement profond des mentalités à la fin du Moyen Age à l'égard du monde. Etude, notamment de l'iconographie de Jérusalem et du Saint-Sépulcre.

Bodt, Saskia de and Jos Koldeweij. "Museumaanwinsten: Middeleeuwse pelgrimstekens." Antiek 20/4 (Nov 1985) 240-244.Physical Details: 15 illustrations. Summary: Pilgrim badges, 14th-15th cs., in the Zeeuws Museum, Middelburg, and the Rijksmuseum Het Catharijneconvent, Utrecht. (RILA, NLD). Notes: Source of data: RILA, International repertory of the literature of art. References: RILA, 14 1306 (1988)

Davis, Lisa Fagin. “A Twelfth-century Pilgrim’s Guide to the Holy Land: Beinecke MS 481.77." Yale University Library Gazette. 1990, v.65, no.1-2, Oct, p. 11-19. Physical Details: 2 ill. Summary: Describes a manuscript which is one of the earliest known guides of the Christian kingdom, having been composed and here transcribed in the early 12th c. Text mentions several sites known to have existed at the time but rarely mentioned in other 12th c. guides.

The Holy Land on Disk for MAC & Windows Version 2.0, rev. and updated. New York: Italica Press, 1999. Physical Details:1 computer optical disc : sd., col. ; 4 3/4 in. Summary: Presents texts written by medieval Christian, Moslem, and Jewish pilgrims to the Holy Land. Features 289 electronic pages, 93 black & white and color photos, historical drawings, and prints; 7 building plans; Interactive Gazetteer of places, buildings, and holy sites; gallery of 9 city views of Jerusalem from the 6th to the 16th century; gallery of 8 maps of the Holy Land from c.1200 to 1630; interactive maps of the Holy Land and Jerusalem.

Santiago de Compostela
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Melczer, William, The Pilgrim's Guide to Santiago de Compostela. New York: Italica Press, 1993.

Shaver-Crandell, Annie and Paula Gerson, The Pilgrim's Guide to Santiago de Compostela: A Gazetteer with 580 Illustrations. London: Harvey Miller Publishers, 1995.

Vielliard, Jean, Le Guide du Pelerin de Saint-Jacques de Compostelle. Paris: Librarie Philosophique J. Vrin, (1938) 5th edition 1984 [Latin text with facing French translation]

Dunn, Maryjane, ed., contrib. Pilgrimage to Compostela in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays. New York: London: Garland, 1996. Physical Details: xlviii, 188 p. : ill., maps; bibliogr. ref., index. Series: Garland reference library of the humanities; 1829. Garland medieval casebooks; 17. Partial Contents: Contents in scope: DUNN, Maryjane., DAVIDSON, Linda Kay., Bibliography of the pilgrimage : the state of the art, (p. xxii-xlix). -- FERREIRO, Alberto., The cult of saints and divine patronage in Gallaecia before Santiago, (p. 3-22). -- SMITH, Colin., The geography and history of Iberia in the Liber Sancti Jacobi, (p. 23-41). -- KROCHALIS, Jeanne E.., 1494 : Hieronymus Münzer, Compostela, and the Codex Calixtinus, (9 13703). -- GITLITZ, David M., The iconography of St. James in the Indianapolis Museum's fifteenth-century altarpiece, (9 14254). -- ALMAZAN, Vicente., The pilgrim-shell in Denmark, (9 12655). -- DAGENAIS, John., A medieval pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela on the information highway, (p. 143-151). Summary: Essays concern the pilgrimage to the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, the burial place of S. James the Greater

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