IV. Rolle, Richard to St. Marcellus Church, Rome

See also over 150 images in MMK Devotional Images Database, arranged alphabetically 
See also Catholic Encyclopedia (1905-17), despite the date still useful as a first reference 

Rolle Richard of Hampole (1300-1349), also known as Richard Rolle, was a hermit who lived in Yorkshire, England.  Born to a small farming family, Rolle was a scholarly man who studied at Oxford University for several years before abandoning his studies to pursue a spiritual life. He was not a member of a religious order, but chose instead to wander the countryside in contemplation.  Legend tells that he scandalized his sister by requesting to borrow two of her dresses.  He then proceeding to convert them into the clothes of a hermit, beginning his life on that path at age 19. 
He is best known for his meditative text Incendium Amoris or The Fire of Love.  The book is a guidebook meant to help the reader attain intimacy with God.  In his writings, Rolle shows a strong aversion to materialism and excess.  He focuses primarily on the Bible, not on any secondary sources in this devotional text.  After his death, which may have been caused by plague, many people believed that miracles occurred at his tomb. The Prick of Conscience, long ascribed to Rolle, is the basis of a complex window designed in 1410 for All Saints North Street in York. There was a strong movement to canonize Richard of Hampole during the Middle Ages although that end was never attained. 
Watson, Nicholas Richard Rolle and the Invention of Authority. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. 
Meditations on the Passion Excerpts from Richard Rolle: The English Writings. Ed. Rosamund S. Allen. NY: Paulist Press, 1988, 93, 111. 

Sweet Lord Jesus Christ, I thank you for the agonies which you endured for us, and for the sweet blood  which you shed for us, when you were so painfully beaten and roped to the pillar so that blood on the pillar can still be seen.  I ask and beg you as my dear lord for that sweet blood, which you bled so generously for me, to be full deliverance for my soul (93). 

Sweet Jesu, I bestow on you words of thanksgiving for all the humiliation and excruciating pain which you endured when they spat in your face, on that sweet mirror and glory of heaven in bodily form, which angels and saints take delight in gazing upon.  Now, sweet Jesu, allow me the grace to take my greatest delight in gazing inwardly and meditating on that glorious face; and, sweet Jesu, restore the image of your face in my soul, which has been faded by the filth of sin; and [send] me the grace to honor you in every creature; and let me never be conceited about the appearance of my own face, nor feel the urge to commit sin because of the appearance of anyone else’s face (111).

[Chapter 35]   [Chapter 89]

Rome Rome in the Middle Ages was an impressive sight in the distance.  The city that the emperor Augustus turned into a gleaming city of marble, however, was, up close, confusing and dirty.  Filled with ancient ruins, it was also the home of seven major basilicas, site of thousands of martyrdoms, and countless relics.  The accompanying indulgence grants were the primary attractions that brought pilgrims to the ancient city.  Rome, at Kempe’s time, was the newly restored residence of the pope.  In 1309, under pressure by the French, the popes, beginning with  Clement V, had changed their residence to Avignon.  In 1377, Gregory XI, urged by St. Catherine of Siena, transferred his residence to Rome (despite continuing schismatic opposition), making the ancient city once again the head of the Christian ecclesiastical community. 
Capgrave, John.  A Fifteenth Century Guidebook to the Principal Churches of Rome. Trans. C. Evenleigh Woodruff. London: Marshall Press Limited, 1933. 
The Itineraries of William Wey. Ed. G. Williams. London: Roxburgh Club, 1837. 
The Stacions of Rome and the Pilgrims Sea Voyage. Ed. Frederick Furnivall. London: Early English Text Society, 1868; rpt. New York: Greenwood, 1969. 
[Chapter 15]   [Chapter 24]  [Chapter 28]   [Chapter 29]   [Chapter 30]  [Chapter 31]   [Chapter 34]
[Chapter 37] [Chapter 38]   [Chapter 39]   [Chapter 40]  [Chapter 42]   [Chapter 85]   [II: Chapter 2]
[II: Chapter 7]

Rosary see beads

Sacraments: The Seven Sacraments
See the catechism issued in Latin and English versions by William Thoresby, archbishop of York.  Both are dated from his manor of Cawood, November 25, 1357. The Layfolk's Catechism, or the English and Latin Versions of Archbishop Thoresby's Instructions for the People. Ed. T. F. Simmons and H. E Nolloth [EETS 118] (London, 1901). 
[Chapter 35]   [Chapter 59]

The Sacrament of Baptism:  It is believed that baptism is a “rebirth” and marks the beginning of a Christian’s spiritual life.  Usually, this sacrament is received in infancy and it absolves the baby of original sin, the legacy of the transgression by humanity's first parents, Adam and Eve.  The person becomes a son or daughter of Christ when he/she is washed with water.  The Holy Spirit is also invoked to bring grace to the individual.  The sacrament of baptism is required before any of the other sacraments can be received. 
[Chapter 14]   [Chapter 25]

The Sacrament of Penance:  It is believed that the sacrament of penance is the forgiveness of sins committed after baptism.  During the sacrament, one is sorrowful for the sins and confesses those sins to a priest.  The priest then gives absolution in Christ’s name.  Often a specific penance, such as fasting, the saying of prayers, giving of alms, or travel to a specific site (at its extreme to one of the great pilgrimage churches) is commanded. 
[Chapter 1]    [Chapter 2]    [Chapter 3] [Chapter 4]   [Chapter 8]

The Sacrament of the Eucharist:  It is believed that through a ritual consecration, bread and wine are spiritually changed into the body and blood of Christ.  Baptized Christians then “eat and drink the body and blood” of Christ.  The sacrament’s ritual is based on the actions and words of Christ the day before his death, at the “Last Supper.”  During the late Middle Ages, the privilege of receiving the Eucharist was greatly desired but frequent reception was discouraged.  The elevation of the host during Mass, when the “sacring bell” was rung, the exposition of the consecrated bread in a monstrance often substituted for reception. In 1357 the Lay folk's catechism defined sacraments, naming the Eucharist the fourth (Modern English by V. Raguin): 

The fourth is the sacrament of the altar 
Christ's own body in the likeness of bread 
As whole as when he took it from that blessed maiden, 
Which every man or woman who is of age 
Should receive every year: 
That means, at Easter, according to the custom of Holy Church 
When they are cleansed of sin through penance. . . 
For he that receives it worthily takes it to his salvation 
And whoever does unworthily, to his damnation. 
The Layfolk's Catechism, or the English and Latin Versions of Archbishop Thoresby's Instructions for the People. Ed. T. F. Simmons and H. E Nolloth (EETS 118) London,. 1901, lines 316-22 and 326-7, p. 66. 
[Chapter 5]    [Chapter 9]   [Chapter 12] [Chapter 20]   [Chapter 32][Chapter 33]   [Chapter 45] [Chapter 48]
[Chapter 70]   [Chapter 72]  [Chapter 74] [Chapter 86]   [Chapter 88][II: Chapter 10]

The Sacrament of Confirmation:  During Confirmation, it is believed that the Holy Spirit descends upon baptized Christians in order to make them strong and perfect Christians.  It is usually received by young adults.  During the sacrament, the Bishop lays his hands upon the candidate and invokes the Holy Ghost to confer grace upon the individual.  The person is then anointed with oil.  Confirmation can only be received once. 

The Sacrament of Holy Orders:  Holy Orders is believed to be a sacrament by which grace and spirituality are conferred upon a baptized male to endow ecclesiastical offices.  There are seven orders: priests, deacons, subdeacons, acolytes, exorcists, readers, and doorkeepers.  However, only the entrance into the priesthood is considered to be a sacrament of Holy Orders.  Through the imposition of hands, grace of the Holy Spirit is conferred upon the candidate to enable him to teach and command. 

The Sacrament of Marriage:  The sacrament of marriage is the exchange of vows between a baptized male and a baptized female. It must be entered into under mutual consent and the marriage must be consummated (sexual union occurring) in order to be valid.  The union is blessed by a priest and grace is conferred upon the man and woman.  Marriage was a permanent bond in the eyes of medieval church.  It was an important social event, being of great importance for family ties. Portions of the ceremony in the late Middle Ages were conduced at the entrance porches to churches. 
[Chapter 82]

The Sacrament of Extreme Unction:  Extreme Unction is believed to bring comfort and to restore spiritual and bodily health to baptized Christians who are seriously ill or in danger of dying.  It also absolves the person of his sins.  During the sacrament, the recipient is anointed with consecrated oil on his eyes, ears, nostrils, lips, hands, and feet.  Sometimes, the priest only anoints the person’s forehead.  Extreme Unction can be repeated if the person is again in danger of death. The processing of the consecrated host, the viaticum, formed an important part of its ritual importance in the Middle Ages. People were taught to keel down and recite prayers when it passed, and were encouraged to follow the procession for added spiritual benefit when possible.  See Miri Rubin. Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991: 79-82. 

St. Ann St. Ann is the mother of the Virgin Mary (who is the mother of Jesus).  The angel Gabriel revealed to Ann that her long period of bareness would end when she conceives a daughter, who “shall be blessed by all the world.”  By the late Middle Ages, Ann is seen as the central figure in the Holy Kinship, comprising Christ’s uncles, aunts, and cousins, many of who became his apostles.  The story of Ann and the infancy of the Virgin was elaborated in early Christian sources such as the Protoevangelium of St. James, which supplied stories, extremely common in art, that became accepted by Christian tradition and popular imagination. Bibliography: Interpreting Cultural Symbols: Saint Anne in Late Medieval Society. Ed. Kathleen Ashley and Pamela Sheingorn. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990. See Holy Kinship
[Chapter 6]

St. Augustine The renowned philosopher and theologian of the Early Christian church, St. Augustine of Hippo (November 13, 354-August 28, 430) remained an extremely influential religious figure during the medieval period. The author of the great tome, City of God (413-426), Augustine was not entirely virtuous as a youth.  He fathered an illegitimate child and was a member of a heretical sect of Christianity, known as the Manichaeans.  Influenced by Ambrose of Milan, as well as his mother, Monica, Augustine underwent a conversion in 383. His spiritual autobiography, the Confessions (c. 400) became a model for affective piety.  His expressions of unworthiness and awe of God's greatness were particularly well received in the late Middle Ages, and resonated with the themes in Margery Kempe's autobiography.  Heavily influenced by neo-Platonic ideals and the writings of St. Paul, Augustine's philosophical writing became a major influence on medieval learning.  He was ordained as a priest in 391 and later became bishop of Hippo in northern Africa.  Augustine encouraged his followers to rise above desire and vice to reach God and to not get lost in the material world.  He believed that the Trinity, not its individual members, should be the focus of prayer and contemplation. 
[II: Chapter 10]

St. Barbara  St. Barbara was a popular late medieval saint often considered one the "three holy maidens" with Catherine and Margaret. She was believed to have lived in Asia Minor during the 3rd century.  Her father locked her in a tower to discourage unwanted suitors. While in the tower she was converted to Christianity by a priest who entered disguised as a doctor. Upon learning of her conversion, her father pursued her, even to handing her over to Roman authorities for torture.  As she was about to be executed by her father's sword, he was struck by a lighting bolt.  Barbara was therefore invoked for protection against lightening and sudden death. She is most frequently depicted with a chalice and a wafer, depicting the sacrament of the Eucharist administered during Extreme Unction, a sacrament given to the gravely ill and dying.  A tower almost always accompanies her image. 
[Chapter 22]

St. Bridget St. Bridget of Sweden was born in 1303 and died on July 23rd, 1373. Her father, Birger, was the royal prince of Sweden and her mother, Ingeborg, was a very pious woman. Bridget received attentive religious training from a young age and liked to meditate on the Passion of Christ. In 1316, at age thirteen, she was married to Ulf Gudmarsson, who was eighteen. St. Bridget and her husband had eight children, the youngest of whom later became St. Catherine of Sweden. After her children were born, St. Bridget and her husband made a vow of chastity. She had discussions with many learned theologians and was received at the court of King Magnus Eriksson. In 1341, she and her husband made a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. Her husband died in 1344 and thereafter St. Bridget devoted herself entirely to religion. Her visions became much more frequent. She believed that Christ appeared to her and she wrote down her many revelations. She compiled her revelations into a book, which was later translated into Latin as well as into Middle English and other vernacular languages. This book was very popular in the Middle Ages and encouraged the formation of her cult following. St. Bridget founded an order of nuns, the Bridgettines. She journeyed to Rome in 1349 and remained there until her death. While living in Rome, she made several pilgrimages, among them one to the Holy Land in 1373. St. Bridget was canonized in October 1391 and her feast day is July 23rd. The patron saint of Sweden, she is also known as St. Birgitta, and to the English as St. Bride. 

In the late 14th century, the Church of St. Bridget was built in Rome and dedicated by Pope Boniface IX, who also canonized the saint on October 7, 1391.  It was located on the site of Bridget's house in Rome, where she had opened a hostel and eventually died, caring for pilgrim Swedes.  The church was restored in 1513, but in ca. 1540, it was temporarily abandoned after Sweden became Lutheran.  Around 1550, Pope Julius III declared it a hostel for converts.  In the 18th century, Pope Clement XI repaired the foundation, built the current structure and gave the hostel to the Order of the Holy Savior.  The Church of St. Bridget is located just to the right of the Piazza Farnese. 
Harris, Marguerite Tjader and Albert Ryle Kezel. Birgitta of Sweden, Life and Selected Revelations. New York: Paulist Press, 1990. 
The Lives of Saint Birgitta of Sweden in the Vernacular . Ed. Bridget Morris and Veronica O'Mara, Brepols Publishers 
Saint Bride and Her Book: Birgitta of Sweden’s Revelations . Trans. from Middle English by Julia Bolton Holloway. Newburyport MA, 1992; 
Voaden, Rosalynn. God’s Words, Women’s Voices: The Discernment of Spirits in the Writings of Late-Medieval Women Visionaries. Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press, 1999. Armellini, Mariano. Le Chiese di Roma dal Secolo IV al XIX . Roma: Tipografia Vaticana, 1891; 
Gnoli, Umberto. Topopgrafia e Toponomastica di Roma Medioevale e Moderna . Roma: Straderini Editore, [date not given]. 
[Chapter 20]   [Chapter 39]  [Chapter 58]

St. Catherine St. Catherine of Alexandria was one of the most popular saints in the late Middle Ages. Believed to have been a well-educated princess, she was seen to have a special relationship with Christ, described as a mystical marriage. By the 13th century, at least, her story began to be elaborated in a variety of dramatic renderings. During the persecution of a pagan emperor, often identified as Maximinus (305-313) ruler of the Eastern part of the Roman empire, Catherine refused to worship Roman gods and argued with his counselors over points of philosophy and faith. The pagan scholars were so persuaded that they converted.  Maximinus then attempted to make Catherine his wife, but Catherine remained true to her mystical spouse, Christ.  When the king attempted to torture her on a wheel (her symbol) an angel destroyed it. Finally she was beheaded. Her body was believed to have been transported by angels to Mt. Sinai, site since Constantine’s time of a renowned monastery dedicated to St. Catherine. 
Bokenham, Osbern. A Legend of Holy Women of 1447. Trans. Shiela Delany. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992. 
Capgrave, John. Life of St. Katharine. Ed. Carl Horstmann. London, EETS, 1893. 
De passione S. Katherine of 1200-1220 in Anchorite Spirituality . Trans. Ann Savage and Nicholas Watson. New York, Paulist Press, 1991. 
Winstead, Karen A. Virgin Martyrs: Legends of Sainthood in Late Medieval England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997. 
[Chapter 17]   [Chapter 22]  [Chapter 35] [Chapter 46]   [Chapter 86][Chapter 87]

St. Elizabeth St. Elizabeth was a cousin of the Virgin Mary and the mother of St. John the Baptist. The Visitation, commonly represented in art, is the moment when Mary, pregnant with Christ, visits Elizabeth, far advanced in her pregnancy with John the Baptist.  Elizabeth greets Mary with the words, “Blessed art Thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb” (Luke 1:42). 
[Chapter 6]

St. Elizabeth of Hungary St. Elizabeth of Hungary, also known as Elizabeth of Thuringia, was born in 1207 in Saros Patak, Hungary.  Her father was King Andrew II.  She died November 17, 1231 in Marburg, Germany at age 24. Even as a child growing up in the luxurious Wartburg Castle, Thuringia, Elizabeth was extremely pious and devoted to prayer.  In 1221, Elizabeth married the son of Landgrave Hermann I, Ludwig, who succeeded his father as ruler of Thuringia.  They had three children. 

During this time, Elizabeth was taught the ideals of St Francis by Brother Rodger.  She embraced these teachings and in 1225 built a Franciscan monastery in Eisnach.  She observed all the Franciscan vows, including chastity, humility, patience, prayer, and charity.  However, she was forbidden from embracing poverty because of her social status.  Flood and famine struck Thuringia in 1226 providing Elizabeth with an opportunity to demonstrate her piety in Ludwig’s absence.  Elizabeth provided alms and clothing to the poor and built a hospital.  After her husband’s death in 1227, Elizabeth claimed her dowery and received the robes of the Tertiary Order of St. Francis.  The following year, she built a Franciscan hospital at Marburg. 
She is generally depicted in art as a princess handing out alms or dressed in the robes of the Tertiary Order.  However, after the 14th century, she is depicted with her husband holding roses.  Legend tells that while on a mission to deliver food to the poor, she was surprised by her husband.  The hidden bread was transformed into roses.  Elizabeth was canonized May 28, 1235 by Pope Gregory IX and her feast day is November 19. 
“Female Sanctity in the Franciscan Movement" in André Vauchez, The Laity in the Middle Ages: Religious Beliefs and Devotional Practices . Ed. Daniel E. Bornstein, trans. Margery J. Schneider. University of Notre Dame Press: South Bend, Indiana. 1993. 
[Chapter 62]

St. Francis Francis of Assisi was born in central Italy in 1182, the son of a linen merchant.  After a youth that was pleasant but undistinguished, he experienced a conversion.  The moment of his rejection of worldly life by stripping off his clothes and casting himself on the church, is often depicted in art. Pope Innocent III gave Francis and his early followers verbal approval for their Rule in 1210.  The Friars Minor, the official name of the Franciscans, like the Dominicans, developed in an era when ministry to the laity had become a crucial need in church structure.  His followers began to gain great support for their espousal of poverty and also their dedication to the preaching. Francis preached before Pope Honorius III and in popular tradition even preached to the birds and other animals.  He traveled to Spain and North Africa and finally to Syrian in an effort to convert the Muslims. As part of his ministry to the average citizen, he devised pious aids, such as a life-size model of the crib at Bethlehem for the celebration of Christmas. The climax of his spirituality came when he imitated Christ by fasting 40 days and 40 nights in a mountain retreat. With the Gospels open to the Passion of Christ, Francis experienced a vision of a winged seraph surrounding an image of the crucified Christ from whose  wounds he received the marks of the stigmata in his own body.  This empathy with the suffering Christ was to have a profound effect on later medieval spirituality.  At his death in 1226, the Franciscan movement had already established far-flung missions.  By the end of the 13th century it was one of the most powerful orders in Western Christendom. 
Bonaventure. The Soul's Journey into God, The Tree of Life, The Life of St. Francis. Trans. Ewert Counsins (Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. 
The Little Flowers of St. Francis (1370-1385 retelling of story of Francis's life). Trans. Raphael Brown. Image Books :Doubleday, New York, 1958. (Catholic Encyclopedia

St. James at Compostela see Santiago

St. Jerome St. Jerome (345-420) is considered one of the four Western (Latin) Doctors of the church (with Augustine, Ambrose, and Gregory the Great). He is revered in popular tradition as a desert recluse and ascetic and also for his prodigious learning.  After baptism at the age of 19, he lived an ascetic life in northeastern Italy under Bishop Valerian.  He then traveled to Antioch, Turkey, and began a two-year retreat into the desert; there he wrote of a dream in which he was accused of being a “Ciceronian not a Christian,” meaning that his studies had concentrated on Latin classical authors and on the beauty of fine rhetorical style.  He subsequently began to study Hebrew and to perfect his knowledge of Greek, skills crucial to his work as Biblical scholar.  His authoritative translations of the Old and New Testaments became the definitive Latin text known as the Vulgate. He worked in a variety of centers of learning, including Antioch and Constantinople, and returning to Rome, became secretary to pope Damasus I. 

Jerome also became spiritual director for a group of noble Roman women, notably St. Paula, a wealthy widow.  After the death of Damasus, Paula and her companions followed Jerome to Palestine and traveled to the Egyptian desert monastic communities, finally settling in Bethlehem.  There Paula built a double monastery, that is, a single administrative unit with separate facilities for men and for woman, not an unusual structure in the Early Church.  It was there that Jerome died. Jerome’s body was later taken to Rome to Santa Maria Maggiore.  Eugene F. Rice, Jr.. Saint Jerome in the Renaissance . Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1985. 
[Chapter 41]

St. John the Baptist  St John the Baptist, a prophet, martyr, and relative of Jesus is referred to in the Scriptures as “the man sent from God.”  His birth, like that of Jesus, was foretold by the angel Gabriel (Luke 1:5-24, 57-80).  The Virgin Mary was present at his birth and cared for his mother, Elizabeth, as well as the newborn.  St. John was responsible for the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River (Luke 3:1-22), where he announced “Behold the Lamb of God.”  He was imprisoned and beheaded by Herod (Matt. 14:1-12).  He is commonly represented with a long unkempt beard and garments made of skin and holding an image of the Lamb of God. 
[Chapter 6]   [Chapter 30]

St. John  St. John the Evangelist was the son of Zebedee and brother of James the Greater. John, James, and Peter were the only witnesses to several of Christ’s miracles, notably the Transfiguration.  John was the first Apostle to reach Christ’s empty tomb and believe in the resurrection.  Speaking from the cross, Jesus gave the Virgin Mary into John's keeping, saying (John 19:26-27) "Woman, behold thy son (and) Son, behold thy mother." In medieval images of the crucifixion, Mary usually stands on Christ’s right (dexter) and John, with his book, on Christ’s left (sinister). Tradition accepted that John was also present at Christ's entombment.  John's symbol as an evangelist is the eagle, signifying the theological heights reached by his Gospel.  John is also considered the author of the Book of Revelations, or Apocalypse, the only prophetic book of the New Testament.  His symbol, as well as the eagle, is a chalice with serpents emerging, a reference to an attempt on his life by the king Aristodemus.  He prepared a poison of crushed toads and serpents.  After John blessed the cup, the creatures reformed and left; the liquid then resurrected three men who had been killed when Aristodemus had tested the poison. See the socle below the statue of John the Evangelist, Chartres Cathedral, north transept, central portal, c. 1220. 
[Chapter 28]   [Chapter 32]  [Chapter 74]   [Chapter 80]   [Chapter 81]

St. John Lateran, Rome  The property surrounding St. John Lateran basilica was given to the church by the emperor Constantine the Great in the c. 340.  An already extant structure was made into a church that became the head of ecclesiastical worship in Rome and the seat of the bishop of Rome, the pope and his residence.  Even when the residence of the pope moved to the Vatican upon his return from Avignon in 1377, St. John Lateran remained his official seat. In 1450, John Capgrave listed that St. John Lateran had a special indulgence attached to its altar, so that every day: 
"there are 48 years of indulgences, 48 quarantines (quadragenae - a 40 day fast) and a remission of the third part of all sins. . . . Pope Gregory (I), who consecrated the church granted such great indulgences that no one can count them -- they are known to God only. . . . Pope Boniface VIII confirmed (these), declaring that if men knew how great were the indulgences of the church of St. John Lateran, they would not cross over to the Sepulcher of the Lord in Jerusalem, nor to St. James in Compostella." 

Capgrave also lists that plenary indulgences can be won by approaching the bishop's seat/throne at St. John Lateran "for worship, prayer, or pilgrimage" and by coming to the basilica on the feast day of its consecration and "devoutly pray(ing) there."  A special plenary indulgence is attached to both the chapel of St. John and the chapel of the Holy of Holies.  (These chapels were closed to women.) 
Capgrave, John, Ye Solace of Pilgrimes: A Description of Rome circa A.D. 1450 by John Capgrave, an Austin Friar of King's Lynn, ed. C. A. Milles, London: Oxford University Press, 1911, 71-76. 
Brewyn, William,  A Fifteenth Century Guidebook to the Principal Churches of Rome.  trans. C. Evenleigh Woodruff . London: Marshall Press Limited, 1933. reprint AMS Press, NY, 1980. 
[Chapter 33]   [Chapter 35]

St. Marcellus’s Church in Rome The church of St. Marcellus, which is listed among the churches of Rome as early as the 5th century, is said to be erected on the site of Pope St. Marcellus's residence.  Among its important relics were the body of St. Marcellus and the heads of Sts. Cosmas and Damian.  It was also the burial place of Leo III, Hadrian I, and Gregory I.  In 1519, the structure was damaged by a fire and Jacopo Sansovino was commissioned to rebuild it.  In his construction Sansovino reversed the orientation of the church. 
[Chapter 38]


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